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In Mathematics, a set of symbols is frequently used in mathematical expressions. As mathematicians are familiar with these symbols, they are not explained each time they are used. So, for mathematical novices, the following table lists many common symbols together with their name, pronunciation and related field of Mathematics. Additionally, the third column contains an informal...


Mathematics

In Mathematics, the word null (from German null and Norwegian null, which is from Latin nullus, both meaning "zero", or "none")cite journal |title="null" |journal=The Oxford English Dictionary, Draft Revision March 2004 |url=http://dictionary.oed.com |year=2004 |accessdate-2007-04-05 may or may not have a meaning different from zero. Sometimes the symbol ? is used...


History of Philosophy

Please contribute to this page Often overlooked, the time after the great ancient philosophers was rich with philosophical activity, rediscovery of ancient writing, and challenges to tradition. Hellenistic Philosophers - Cicero Zeno of Citium Epictetus Epicurus Lucretius Empedocles The Neo-Platonists: Ammonius...


History of Philosophy

The term Indian Philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu Philosophy Buddhist Philosophy Jain Philosophy


Science

Systems Theory (or Theorie) or General Systems Theory or Systemics is an interdisciplinary field which studies systems as a whole. Systems Theory was founded by Ludwig von Bertalanffy, William Ross Ashby and others between the 1940s and the 1970s on principles from Physics, Biology and Engineering and later grew with connections into...


Technology

Open-source computer software is software whose source code is either in the public domain or, more commonly, is...


Topic Papers

Philosophy in the 21st Century is reacting to two major forces affecting its way of life. The first, a dismantling or destructive force, comes primarily from Academia, while the second, a rebuilding or constructive force, comes mainly from the diversity of voices and media through which...


Philosophical Studies

The philosophy of language doesn't ask what particular words mean, or whether particular sentences are true. (Except of course for words and sentences about the language.) Rather, it asks what meaning in general is. What is the meanings of the word "meaning"? How do we to understand this concept? Maybe, on first glance,...


Philosophical Studies

Philosophy of History is an area of Philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of "human history". Furthermore, it is speculative on Teleological Ends to historical development. It is to ask if there is a Design, Purpose, Directive Principle, or Finality in the processes of...


Philosophical Studies

Perception is one of our most important mental processes. If we could not perceive anything, then we would know nothing except the contents of our own minds. Because it is our window onto the world, it is important for us to know some basic facts about perception. For example, does our...


GetWiki

Web of WikiWebs - GetWiki uses custom external links to remote sites you can use, as well as links in the form of (Community:GetWiki), instead of pasting the entire url into your text. These links, some stored in the database and sometimes called "interwiki" links, are a wonderful invention. However, on local Wikis, like GetWiki, the link above could even link to the...


GetWiki

"Plug" Simplicity - Does anybody really need all those links and functions? Sometimes, I'm not so sure, and some wiki software is far more bare-bones, much prettier to look at. GetWiki is certainly simple to use, but in developing "Plug", the application now running rimric.com for free book reviews and news/discussion of small press titles, I'm now...


Philosophical Studies

The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy which deals with the study of science (in the sense of "natural science"). The philosophy of science is closely related to epistemology. It seeks to explain such things as the nature of scientific statements, the way in which they are produced,...


Culture

is wikinfo dead?- Wow, Fred has made some radical changes very quickly over there! Besides his unethical, unwarranted freak out on me (Proteus, the one person who kept Wikinfo running smoothly for 3 years), he totally botched a questionable regrade back to MediaWiki (thus solidifying his ties to Jimbo's Borg, and killing the importing which made Wikinfo what it was). By making all the...


Technology

The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. SGML is a descendant of IBM's "Generalized Markup Language" GML, developed in the 1960s by Charles Goldfarb, Edward Mosher and Raymond Lorie (whose surname initials also happen to be GML). SGML provides a variety of markup...


Philosophical Studies

Epistemology is the branch of Philosophy dealing with the nature, origin and scope of Knowledge, and Method in obtaining Knowledge. Some consensus exists as to which epistemological methods give human beings the most accurate understanding of the truth (rather...


Philosophical Studies

For non-technical usage see Pragmatism (non-technical usage). For themes emphasized by Charles Sanders Peirce see Pragmaticism. Pragmatism, as a school of philosophy, is a collection of many different ways of thinking. Given the diversity among thinkers and the variety among schools of thought that have adopted this term over the years, the term pragmatism has become...


Mathematics

Other Languages : (中文 : 关系 (数学)) This article presents the generalized concept of a relation. For more basic presentations see the articles on binary relations and triadic relations. In mathematics, a finitary relation is defined by one of the formal definitions...


Philosophy

Inquiry is any proceeding or process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem. A theory of inquiry is an account of the various types of inquiry and a treatment of the ways that each type of inquiry achieves its aim. Classical sources- Deduction- When three terms are so related to one another that the last is wholly contained in the middle and the...


Software

The Apache HTTP Server is an open source HTTP web server for Unix platforms (BSDi, Linux, and Mac OS X systems), Microsoft Windows, and other platforms. The author claims the name was initially chosen as a catchy name in order to be original, but the most widespread interpretation (which almost immediately surfaced) is that the name comes from the fact that...


Biographies

Baruch Benedict de Spinoza (24 Nov 1632 - 21 Feb 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of a Portuguese Jewish family, whose controversial metaphysical ideas led to cherem (removal) against him from Jewish Society, and his works were banned by the Vatican. Despite his considerable scientific aptitude, the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was...


Philosophy

Teleology (telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. Teleology traditionally is contrasted with Naturalism, which views nature as lacking design or purpose. For example, Naturalism would say that a...


Philosophical Studies

Aesthetics (or Esthetics, or Philosophy of Art) is a branch of Philosophy dealing with the definition of Beauty and how we relate to what is Beautiful. The word aesthetics was first used by the German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, who helped to establish the study of...

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