SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

logos

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
logos
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{About|Logos (plural: logoi or Logoi) in philosophy, rhetoric, linguistics, psychology, and theology|the plural of logo|Logo}}{{Other uses|Logos (disambiguation)}}{{Italic title}}File:Logos.svg|Left|thumb|Greek spelling of logos]]Logos ({{IPAc-en|UK|ˈ|l|oÊŠ|É¡|É’|s|,_|ˈ|l|É’|É¡|É’|s}}, {{IPAc-en|US|ˈ|l|oÊŠ|É¡|oÊŠ|s}}; ; from , {{transl|grc|légō}}, {{Literal translation|'I say'|lk=on}}) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon: logos, 1889.Entrys at LSJ online. but it became a technical term in Western philosophy beginning with Heraclitus ({{Circa| 535| 475 BC|lk=on}}), who used the term for a principle of order and knowledge.Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed): Heraclitus, 1999. Logos is the logic behind an argument.WEB,weblink The Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos, Butler, S, members.tripod.com, 2016-10-27, Logos tries to persuade an audience using logical arguments and supportive evidence. Logos is a persuasive technique often used in writing and rhetoric.Ancient Greek philosophers used the term in different ways. The sophists used the term to mean discourse; Aristotle applied the term to refer to "reasoned discourse" or "the argument" in the field of rhetoric, and considered it one of the three modes of persuasion alongside ethos and pathos.Rapp, Christof, "Aristotle's Rhetoric", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) Stoic philosophers identified the term with the divine animating principle pervading the Universe. Within Hellenistic Judaism, Philo of Alexandria ({{Circa| 20 BC| 50 AD}}) adopted the term into Jewish philosophy.Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed): Philo Judaeus, 1999. The Gospel of John identifies the Logos, through which all things are made, as divine (theos),May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977. and further identifies Jesus Christ as the incarnate Logos. The term is also used in Sufism, and the analytical psychology of Carl Jung.Despite the conventional translation as "word", it is not used for a word in the grammatical sense; instead, the term lexis (, {{transl|grc|léxis}}) was used.Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon: lexis, 1889. However, both logos and lexis derive from the same verb {{transl|grc|légō}} (), meaning "(I) count, tell, say, speak".Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon: legō, 1889.Jeanne Fahnestock describes logos as a "premise". She states that, to find the reason behind a rhetor's backing of a certain position or stance, one must acknowledge the different "premises" that the rhetor applies via his or her chosen diction.WEB, Fahnestock, Jeanne, The Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos,weblink The rhetor's success, she argues, will come down to "certain objects of agreement...between arguer and audience". "Logos is logical appeal, and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's topic."WEB, Aristotle's Three Modes of Persuasion in Rhetoric,weblink Furthermore, logos is credited with appealing to the audience's sense of logic, with the definition of "logic" being concerned with the thing as it is known.Furthermore, one can appeal to this sense of logic in two ways: 1) through inductive logic, providing the audience with relevant examples and using them to point back to the overall statement;WEB, Ethos, Pathos, and Logos,weblink 2) through deductive enthymeme, providing the audience with general scenarios and then pulling out a certain truth.Philo distinguished between logos prophorikos ("the uttered word") and the logos endiathetos ("the word remaining within").JOURNAL, Adam Kamesar, The Logos Endiathetos and the Logos Prophorikos in Allegorical Interpretation: Philo and the D-Scholia to the Iliad,weblink Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies (GRBS), 44, 2004, 163–81, The Stoics also spoke of the logos spermatikos (the generative principle of the Universe), which is not important in the Biblical tradition but is relevant in Neoplatonism.BOOK, A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature, David L. Jeffrey,weblink Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, 1992, 0-8028-3634-8, 459, Early translators from Greek, such as Jerome in the 4th century AD, were frustrated by the inadequacy of any single Latin word to convey the Logos expressed in the Gospel of John. The Vulgate Bible usage of was thus constrained to use the (perhaps inadequate) noun for "word", but later Romance language translations had the advantage of nouns such as in French. Reformation translators took another approach. Martin Luther rejected (verb) in favor of (word), for instance, although later commentators repeatedly turned to a more dynamic use involving the living word as felt by Jerome and Augustine.BOOK, A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature, David L. Jeffrey,weblink Grand Rapids, Michigan, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, 1992, 0-8028-3634-8, 460,

Ancient Greek philosophy

Heraclitus

{{Further|Heraclitus#Logos}}The writing of Heraclitus ({{Circa|535|475 BC|lk=on}}) was the first place where the word logos was given special attention in ancient Greek philosophy,F. E. Peters, Greek Philosophical Terms, New York University Press, 1967. although Heraclitus seems to use the word with a meaning not significantly different from the way in which it was used in ordinary Greek of his time.W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 1962, pp. 419ff. For Heraclitus, logos provided the link between rational discourse and the world's rational structure.The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of PhilosophyWhat logos means here is not certain; it may mean "reason" or "explanation" in the sense of an objective cosmic law, or it may signify nothing more than "saying" or "wisdom".Handboek geschiedenis van de wijsbegeerte 1, Article by Jaap Mansveld & Keimpe Algra, p. 41 Yet, an independent existence of a universal logos was clearly suggested by Heraclitus.W. K. C. Guthrie, The Greek Philosophers: From Thales to Aristotle, Methuen, 1967, p. 45.Aristotle identifies two specific types of persuasion methods: artistic and inartistic.WEB, Discovering the Arguments: Artistic and Inartistic Proofs,weblink He defines artistic proofs as arguments that the rhetor generates and creates on their own. Examples of these include relationships, testimonies, and conjugates. He defines inartistic proofs as arguments that the rhetor quotes using information from a non-self-generated source. Examples of these include laws, contracts, and oaths.

Aristotle's rhetorical logos

(File:Aristotle Altemps Inv8575.jpg|thumb|150px|Aristotle, 384–322 BC.)Following one of the other meanings of the word, Aristotle gave logos a different technical definition in the Rhetoric, using it as meaning argument from reason, one of the three modes of persuasion. The other two modes are pathos (, {{transl|grc|páthos}}), which refers to persuasion by means of emotional appeal, "putting the hearer into a certain frame of mind";Aristotle, Rhetoric, in Patricia P. Matsen, Philip B. Rollinson, and Marion Sousa, Readings from Classical Rhetoric, SIU Press, 1990, {{ISBN|0-8093-1592-0}}, p. 120. and ethos (, {{transl|grc|êthos}}), persuasion through convincing listeners of one's "moral character". According to Aristotle, logos relates to "the speech itself, in so far as it proves or seems to prove".In the translation by W. Rhys Roberts, this reads "the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself". In the words of Paul Rahe:, p. 21.}}Logos, pathos, and ethos can all be appropriate at different times.Eugene Garver, Aristotle's Rhetoric: An art of character, University of Chicago Press, 1994, {{ISBN|0-226-28424-7}}, p. 114. Arguments from reason (logical arguments) have some advantages, namely that data are (ostensibly) difficult to manipulate, so it is harder to argue against such an argument; and such arguments make the speaker look prepared and knowledgeable to the audience, enhancing ethos.{{Citation needed|date=February 2010}} On the other hand, trust in the speaker—built through ethos—enhances the appeal of arguments from reason.Garver, p. 192.Robert Wardy suggests that what Aristotle rejects in supporting the use of logos "is not emotional appeal per se, but rather emotional appeals that have no 'bearing on the issue', in that the pathÄ“ [, {{transl|grc|páthÄ“}}] they stimulate lack, or at any rate are not shown to possess, any intrinsic connection with the point at issue—as if an advocate were to try to whip an antisemitic audience into a fury because the accused is Jewish; or as if another in drumming up support for a politician were to exploit his listeners's reverential feelings for the politician's ancestors".Robert Wardy, "Mighty Is the Truth and It Shall Prevail?", in Essays on Aristotle's Rhetoric, Amélie Rorty (ed), University of California Press, 1996, {{ISBN|0-520-20228-7}}, p. 64.Aristotle comments on the three modes by stating: |Aristotle|Rhetoric|350 BC}}

Stoics

Stoic philosophy began with Zeno of Citium {{Circa|300 BC|lk=on}}, in which the logos was the active reason pervading and animating the Universe. It was conceived as material and is usually identified with God or Nature. The Stoics also referred to the seminal logos ("logos spermatikos"), or the law of generation in the Universe, which was the principle of the active reason working in inanimate matter. Humans, too, each possess a portion of the divine logos.Tripolitis, A., Religions of the Hellenistic-Roman Age, pp. 37–38. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.The Stoics took all activity to imply a logos or spiritual principle. As the operative principle of the world, the logos was anima mundi to them, a concept which later influenced Philo of Alexandria, although he derived the contents of the term from Plato.Studies in European Philosophy, by James Lindsay, 2006, {{ISBN|1-4067-0173-4}}, p. 53 In his Introduction to the 1964 edition of Marcus Aurelius' Meditations, the Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth wrote that "Logos [...] had long been one of the leading terms of Stoicism, chosen originally for the purpose of explaining how deity came into relation with the universe".BOOK, Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius, Meditations,weblink 1964, London, Penguin Books, 24, 0-14044140-9,

Isocrates' logos

Public discourse on ancient Greek rhetoric has historically emphasized Aristotle's appeals to logos, pathos, and ethos, while less attention has been directed to Isocrates' teachings about philosophy and logos,David M. Timmerman and Edward Schiappa, Classical Greek Rhetorical Theory and the Disciplining of Discourse (London: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010): 43–66 and their partnership in generating an ethical, mindful polis. Isocrates does not provide a single definition of logos in his work, but Isocratean logos characteristically focuses on speech, reason, and civic discourse. He was concerned with establishing the "common good" of Athenian citizens, which he believed could be achieved through the pursuit of philosophy and the application of logos.

In Hellenistic Judaism

{{See also|Hellenistic Judaism}}In the Septuagint the term logos is used for the word of God in the creation of heaven in Psalm 33:6, and in some related contexts.

Philo of Alexandria

Philo ({{Circa|20 BC|50 AD|lk=on}}), a Hellenized Jew, used the term Logos to mean an intermediary divine being or demiurge. Philo followed the Platonic distinction between imperfect matter and perfect Form, and therefore intermediary beings were necessary to bridge the enormous gap between God and the material world.Frederick Copleston, A History of Philosophy, Volume 1, Continuum, 2003, pp. 458–62. The Logos was the highest of these intermediary beings, and was called by Philo "the first-born of God".Philo also wrote that "the Logos of the living God is the bond of everything, holding all things together and binding all the parts, and prevents them from being dissolved and separated".Philo, De Profugis, cited in Gerald Friedlander, Hellenism and Christianity, P. Vallentine, 1912, pp. 114–15.Plato's Theory of Forms was located within the Logos, but the Logos also acted on behalf of God in the physical world. In particular, the Angel of the Lord in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) was identified with the Logos by Philo, who also said that the Logos was God's instrument in the creation of the Universe.

Christianity

File:Prologus Ioanni Vulgata Clementina.jpg|thumb|In principio erat verbum, Latin for In the beginning was the Word, from the Clementine Vulgate, (Gospel of John]], 1:1–18.)In Christology, the Logos ()Entry at LSJ online. is a name or title of Jesus Christ, seen as the pre-existent second person of the Trinity. The concept derives from (John 1:1), which in the Douay–Rheims, King James, New International, and other versions of the Bible, reads:{{Bibleref2|John|1:1|KJV}}{{Bibleref2|John|1:1|NIV}}}} In the translations, "Word" is used for Λόγος, although the term is often used transliterated but untranslated in theological discourse.

Rhema

The word logos has been used in different senses along with rhema. Both Plato and Aristotle used the term logos along with rhema to refer to sentences and propositions.General linguistics by Francis P. Dinneen 1995 {{ISBN|0-87840-278-0}} p. 118 weblinkThe history of linguistics in Europe from Plato to 1600 by Vivien Law 2003 {{ISBN|0-521-56532-4}} p. 29 weblinkThe Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek uses the terms rhema and logos as equivalents and uses both for the Hebrew word dabar, as the Word of God.Theological dictionary of the New Testament, Volume 1 by Gerhard Kittel, Gerhard Friedrich, Geoffrey William Bromiley 1985 {{ISBN|0-8028-2404-8}} p. 508 weblinkThe International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Q-Z by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1995 {{ISBN|0-8028-3784-0}} p. 1102 weblinkOld Testament Theology by Horst Dietrich Preuss, Leo G. Perdue 1996 {{ISBN|0-664-21843-1}} p. 81 weblinkSome modern usage in Christian theology distinguishes rhema from logos (which here refers to the written scriptures) while rhema refers to the revelation received by the reader from the Holy Spirit when the Word (logos) is read,What Every Christian Ought to Know by Adrian Rogers 2005 {{ISBN|0-8054-2692-2}} p. 162 weblinkThe Identified Life of Christ by Joe Norvell 2006 {{ISBN|1-59781-294-3}} p. weblinkweblink Holy Spirit, Teach Me by Brenda Boggs 2008 {{ISBN|1-60477-425-8}} p. 80weblink The Fight of Every Believer by Terry Law {{ISBN|1-57794-580-8}} p. 45 although this distinction has been criticized.James T. Draper and Kenneth Keathley, Biblical Authority, Broadman & Holman, 2001, {{ISBN|0-8054-2453-9}}, p. 113.John F. MacArthur, Charismatic Chaos, Zondervan, 1993, {{ISBN|0-310-57572-9}}, pp. 45–46.

Neoplatonism

File:Plotinus and disciples.jpg|thumb|180px|PlotinusPlotinusNeoplatonist philosophers such as Plotinus ({{Circa|204/5|lk=on}}{{snd}}270 AD) used the term "Logos" in ways that drew on Plato and the Stoics,Michael F. Wagner, Neoplatonism and Nature: Studies in Plotinus' Enneads, Volume 8 of Studies in Neoplatonism, SUNY Press, 2002, {{ISBN|0-7914-5271-9}}, pp. 116–17. but the term Logos was interpreted in different ways throughout Neoplatonism, and similarities to Philo's concept of Logos appear to be accidental.John M. Rist, Plotinus: The road to reality, Cambridge University Press, 1967, {{ISBN|0-521-06085-0}}, pp. 84–101. The Logos was a key element in the meditations of PlotinusBetween Physics and Nous: Logos as Principle of Meditation in Plotinus, The Journal of Neoplatonic Studies, Volumes 7–8, 1999, p. 3 regarded as the first Neoplatonist. Plotinus referred back to Heraclitus and as far back as ThalesHandboek Geschiedenis van de Wijsbegeerte I, Article by Carlos Steel in interpreting Logos as the principle of meditation, existing as the interrelationship between the hypostases—the soul, the intellect (nous), and the One.The Journal of Neoplatonic Studies, Volumes 7–8, Institute of Global Cultural Studies, Binghamton University, 1999, p. 16Plotinus used a trinity concept that consisted of "The One", the "Spirit", and "Soul". The comparison with the Christian Trinity is inescapable, but for Plotinus these were not equal and "The One" was at the highest level, with the "Soul" at the lowest.weblink Ancient philosophy by Anthony Kenny 2007 {{ISBN|0-19-875272-5}} p. 311 For Plotinus, the relationship between the three elements of his trinity is conducted by the outpouring of Logos from the higher principle, and eros (loving) upward from the lower principle.The Enneads by Plotinus, Stephen MacKenna, John M. Dillon 1991 {{ISBN|0-14-044520-X}} p. xcii weblink Plotinus relied heavily on the concept of Logos, but no explicit references to Christian thought can be found in his works, although there are significant traces of them in his doctrine.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} Plotinus specifically avoided using the term Logos to refer to the second person of his trinity.Neoplatonism in Relation to Christianityby Charles Elsee 2009 {{ISBN|1-116-92629-6}} pp. 89–90 weblink However, Plotinus influenced Gaius Marius Victorinus, who then influenced Augustine of Hippo.The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology edited by Alan Richardson, John Bowden 1983 {{ISBN|0-664-22748-1}} p. 448 weblink Centuries later, Carl Jung acknowledged the influence of Plotinus in his writings.Jung and aesthetic experience by Donald H. Mayo, 1995 {{ISBN|0-8204-2724-1}} p. 69Victorinus differentiated between the Logos interior to God and the Logos related to the world by creation and salvation.Theological treatises on the Trinity, by Marius Victorinus, Mary T. Clark, p. 25Augustine of Hippo, often seen as the father of medieval philosophy, was also greatly influenced by Plato and is famous for his re-interpretation of Aristotle and Plato in the light of early Christian thought.Neoplatonism and Christian thought (Volume 2), By Dominic J. O'Meara, p. 39 A young Augustine experimented with, but failed to achieve ecstasy using the meditations of Plotinus.Hans Urs von Balthasar, Christian meditation Ignatius Press {{ISBN|0-89870-235-6}} p. 8 In his Confessions, Augustine described Logos as the Divine Eternal Word,Confessions, Augustine, p. 130 by which he, in part, was able to motivate the early Christian thought throughout the Hellenized world (of which the Latin speaking West was a part)Handboek Geschiedenis van de Wijsbegeerte I, Article by Douwe Runia Augustine's Logos had taken body in Christ, the man in whom the logos (i.e. or ) was present as in no other man.De immortalitate animae of Augustine: text, translation and commentary, By Saint Augustine (Bishop of Hippo.), C. W. Wolfskeel, introduction

Islam

The concept of the logos also exists in Islam, where it was definitively articulated primarily in the writings of the classical Sunni mystics and Islamic philosophers, as well as by certain Shi'a thinkers, during the Islamic Golden Age.Gardet, L., "Kalām", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Boer, Tj. de and Rahman, F., "ʿAḳl", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. In Sunni Islam, the concept of the logos has been given many different names by the denomination's metaphysicians, mystics, and philosophers, including ʿaql ("Intellect"), al-insān al-kāmil ("Universal Man"), kalimat Allāh ("Word of God"), haqīqa muḥammadiyya ("The Muhammadan Reality"), and nūr muḥammadī ("The Muhammadan Light").

Ê¿Aql

One of the names given to a concept very much like the Christian Logos by the classical Muslim metaphysicians is Ê¿aql, which is the "Arabic equivalent to the Greek ('intellect')." In the writings of the Islamic Neoplatonist philosophers, such as al-Farabi ({{Circa|872|950 AD}}) and Avicenna (d. 1037), the idea of the Ê¿aql was presented in a manner that both resembled "the late Greek doctrine" and, likewise, "corresponded in many respects to the Logos Christology."The concept of Logos in Sufism is used to relate the "Uncreated" (God) to the "Created" (humanity). In Sufism, for the Deist, no contact between man and God can be possible without the Logos. The Logos is everywhere and always the same, but its personification is "unique" within each region. Jesus and Muhammad are seen as the personifications of the Logos, and this is what enables them to speak in such absolute terms.Sufism: love & wisdom by Jean-Louis Michon, Roger Gaetani 2006 {{ISBN|0-941532-75-5}} p. 242 weblinkSufi essays by Seyyed Hossein Nasr 1973 p. 148]One of the boldest and most radical attempts to reformulate the Neoplatonic concepts into Sufism arose with the philosopher Ibn Arabi, who traveled widely in Spain and North Africa. His concepts were expressed in two major works The Ringstones of Wisdom (Fusus al-Hikam) and The Meccan Illuminations (Al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya). To Ibn Arabi, every prophet corresponds to a reality which he called a Logos (Kalimah), as an aspect of the unique Divine Being. In his view the Divine Being would have for ever remained hidden, had it not been for the prophets, with Logos providing the link between man and divinity.Biographical encyclopaedia of Sufis by N. Hanif 2002 {{ISBN|81-7625-266-2}} p. 39 weblinkIbn Arabi seems to have adopted his version of the Logos concept from Neoplatonic and Christian sources,Charles A. Frazee, "Ibn al-'ArabÄ« and Spanish Mysticism of the Sixteenth Century", Numen 14 (3), Nov 1967, pp. 229–40. although (writing in Arabic rather than Greek) he used more than twenty different terms when discussing it.JOURNAL, Little, John T., January 1987, AL-INSÄ€N AL-KÄ€MIL: THE PERFECT MAN ACCORDING TO IBN AL-'ARAB?,weblink The Muslim World, Hartford Seminary, 77, 1, 43–54, 10.1111/j.1478-1913.1987.tb02785.x, 30 May 2016, "Ibn al-'Arabi uses no less than twenty-two different terms to describe the various aspects under which this single Logos may be viewed.", For Ibn Arabi, the Logos or "Universal Man" was a mediating link between individual human beings and the divine essence.BOOK, Dobie, Robert J., 17 November 2009, Logos and Revelation: Ibn 'Arabi, Meister Eckhart, and Mystical Hermeneutics,weblink Washington, D.C., The Catholic University of America Press, 225, 081321677X, "For Ibn Arabi, the Logos or "Universal Man" was a mediating link between individual human beings and the divine essence.", Other Sufi writers also show the influence of the Neoplatonic Logos.Edward Henry Whinfield, Masnavi I Ma'navi: The spiritual couplets of Maulána Jalálu-'d-Dín Muhammad Rúmí, Routledge, 2001 (originally published 1898), {{ISBN|0-415-24531-1}}, p. xxv. In the 15th century Abd al-KarÄ«m al-JÄ«lÄ« introduced the Doctrine of Logos and the Perfect Man. For al-JÄ«lÄ«, the "perfect man" (associated with the Logos or the Holy Prophet) has the power to assume different forms at different times and to appear in different guises.Biographical encyclopaedia of Sufis by N. Hanif 2002 {{ISBN|81-7625-266-2}} p. 98 weblinkIn Ottoman Sufism, Åžeyh Gâlib (d. 1799) articulates Sühan (Logos-Kalima) in his Hüsn ü AÅŸk (Beauty and Love) in parallel to Ibn Arabi's Kalima. In the romance, Sühan appears as an embodiment of Kalima as a reference to the Word of God, the Perfect Man, and the Reality of Muhammad.Betül Avcı, "Character of Sühan in Åžeyh Gâlib’s Romance, Hüsn ü AÅŸk (Beauty and Love)" Archivum Ottomanicum, 32 (2015).{{Relevance inline|date=March 2018}}

Jung's analytical psychology

File:Carl Jung (1912).png|thumb|150px|A 37-year-old Carl JungCarl JungCarl Jung contrasted the critical and rational faculties of logos with the emotional, non-reason oriented and mythical elements of eros.C.G. Jung and the psychology of symbolic forms by Petteri Pietikäinen 2001 {{ISBN|951-41-0857-4}} p. 22 In Jung's approach, logos vs eros can be represented as "science vs mysticism", or "reason vs imagination" or "conscious activity vs the unconscious".Mythos and logos in the thought of Carl Jung by Walter A. Shelburne 1988 {{ISBN|0-88706-693-3}} p. 4 weblinkFor Jung, logos represented the masculine principle of rationality, in contrast to its female counterpart, eros:.}}Jung attempted to equate logos and eros, his intuitive conceptions of masculine and feminine consciousness, with the alchemical Sol and Luna. Jung commented that in a man the lunar anima and in a woman the solar animus has the greatest influence on consciousness.Aspects of the masculine by Carl Gustav Jung, John Beebe p. 85 Jung often proceeded to analyze situations in terms of "paired opposites", e.g. by using the analogy with the eastern yin and yangCarl Gustav Jung: critical assessments by Renos K. Papadopoulos 1992 {{ISBN|0-415-04830-3}} p. 19 and was also influenced by the Neoplatonists.See the Neoplatonic section above.In his book Mysterium Coniunctionis Jung made some important final remarks about anima and animus:In so far as the spirit is also a kind of "window on eternity"... it conveys to the soul a certain influx divinus... and the knowledge of a higher system of the world, wherein consists precisely its supposed animation of the soul.And in this book Jung again emphasized that the animus compensates eros, while the anima compensates logos.The handbook of Jungian psychology: theory, practice and applications by Renos K. Papadopoulos 2006 {{ISBN|1-58391-147-2}} p. 118 weblink

See also

{{div col|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}

References

{{Reflist|2}}

External links

{{Theology}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "logos" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:26pm EDT - Thu, Aug 16 2018
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 18 AUG 2014
Wikinfo
Culture
CONNECT