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divination
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File:Divination display at the Pitt Rivers Museum.jpg|thumb|Display on divination, featuring a cross-cultural range of items, in the Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford, EnglandEngland{{distinguish-otheruses|Divinization (disambiguation){{!}}Divinization|Divination (disambiguation)}}{{redirect|Divining|pseudoscientific attempts to find water or other things|Dowsing}}{{Anthropology of religion|Basic|image=(File:Rhumsiki crab sorceror.jpg|frameless|300px|center)|caption=This man in Rhumsiki, Cameroon, attempts to tell the future by interpreting the changes in position of various objects as caused by a freshwater crab through the practice of nggàm.WEB,weblink Anthropological Studies of Divination, anthropology.ac.uk, }}Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god",WEB,weblink LacusCurtius • Greek and Roman Divination (Smith's Dictionary, 1875), uchicago.edu, related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.Peek, P.M. African Divination Systems: Ways of Knowing. page 2. Indiana University Press. 1991. Used in various forms throughout history, diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens, or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency.JOURNAL, Silva, Sónia, 2016, Object and Objectivity in Divination,weblink Material Religion, 12, 4, 507–509, 10.1080/17432200.2016.1227638, 1743-2200, Divination can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets of existence such that they provide insight into a problem at hand. If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling, divination has a more formal or ritualistic element and often contains a more social character, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional African medicine. Fortune-telling, on the other hand, is a more everyday practice for personal purposes. Particular divination methods vary by culture and religion.Divination is dismissed by the scientific community and skeptics as being superstition.Yau, Julianna. (2002). Witchcraft and Magic. In Michael Shermer. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. ABC-CLIO. pp. 278-282. {{ISBN|1-57607-654-7}}Regal, Brian. (2009). Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia. Greenwood. p. 55. {{ISBN|978-0-313-35507-3}} In the 2nd century, Lucian devoted a witty essay to the career of a charlatan, "Alexander the false prophet", trained by "one of those who advertise enchantments, miraculous incantations, charms for your love-affairs, visitations for your enemies, disclosures of buried treasure, and successions to estates",WEB,weblink Lucian of Samosata : Alexander the False Prophet, tertullian.org, even though most Romans believed in prophetic dreams and charms{{Citation needed|reason=Did most Romans believe in these things?|date=November 2018}}.

Categories

missing image!
- ChickenDivination.jpg -
Russian peasant girls using chickens for divination; 19th century lubok.
{{Further|List of magical terms and traditions}}

History

Antiquity

The Oracle of Amun at the Siwa Oasis was made famous when Alexander the Great visited it after conquering Egypt from Persia in 332 BC.
{{bibleref2|Deuteronomy|18:10-12}} or {{bibleref2|Leviticus|19:26}} can be interpreted as categorically forbidding divination. However, some would claim that divination is indeed practiced in the Bible, such as in Exodus 28, when the Urim and Thummim are mentioned. Some would also say that Gideon also practiced divination, though when he uses a piece of fleece or wool in {{bibleref2|Judges|6:36-40}}, he is not attempting to predict the outcome of an important battle; rather, he is communicating with God. Communicating with God through prayer may in some cases be considered divination; both are open, typically two-way conversations with God. In addition, the method of "casting lots" used in {{bibleref2|Joshua|14:1-5}} and {{bibleref2|Joshua|18:1-10}} to divide the conquered lands of Canaan between the twelve tribes is not seen by some as divination, but as done at the behest of God (Numbers 26:55).{{See also|Oracle|Greek divination}}Both oracles and seers in ancient Greece practiced divination. Oracles were the conduits for the gods on earth; their prophecies were understood to be the will of the gods verbatim. Because of the high demand for oracle consultations and the oracles’ limited work schedule, they were not the main source of divination for the ancient Greeks. That role fell to the seers (μάντεις in Greek).Seers were not in direct contact with the gods; instead, they were interpreters of signs provided by the gods. Seers used many methods to explicate the will of the gods including extispicy, bird signs, etc. They were more numerous than the oracles and did not keep a limited schedule; thus, they were highly valued by all Greeks, not just those with the capacity to travel to Delphi or other such distant sites.The disadvantage to seers was that only direct yes-or-no questions could be answered. Oracles could answer more generalized questions, and seers often had to perform several sacrifices in order to get the most consistent answer. For example, if a general wanted to know if the omens were proper for him to advance on the enemy, he would ask his seer both that question and if it were better for him to remain on the defensive. If the seer gave consistent answers, the advice was considered valid.At battle, generals would frequently ask seers at both the campground (a process called the hiera) and at the battlefield (called the sphagia). The hiera entailed the seer slaughtering a sheep and examining its liver for answers regarding a more generic question; the sphagia involved killing a young female goat by slitting its throat and noting the animal’s last movements and blood flow. The battlefield sacrifice only occurred when two armies prepared for battle against each other. Neither force would advance until the seer revealed appropriate omens.Because the seers had such power over influential individuals in ancient Greece, many were skeptical of the accuracy and honesty of the seers. The degree to which seers were honest depends entirely on the individual seers. Despite the doubt surrounding individual seers, the craft as a whole was well regarded and trusted by the Greeks.Flower, Michael Attyah. The Seer in Ancient Greece. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Middle Ages and Early Modern period

{{see|Medieval magic|Renaissance magic|Folk Catholicism}}The divination method of casting lots (Cleromancy) was used by the remaining eleven disciples of Jesus in {{bibleref2|Acts|1:23-26}} to select a replacement for Judas Iscariot. Therefore, divination was arguably an accepted practice in the early church. However, divination became viewed as a pagan practice by Christian emperors during ancient Rome.Bailey, Michael David. (2007). Magic and Superstition in Europe. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. pp. 52-53. {{ISBN|0-7425-3386-7}}In 692 the Quinisext Council, also known as the "Council in Trullo" in the Eastern Orthodox Church, passed canons to eliminate pagan and divination practices.WEB,weblink Council of Trullo - Apostolic Confraternity Seminary, apostolicconfraternityseminary.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707152243weblink">weblink 2011-07-07, Fortune-telling and other forms of divination were widespread through the Middle Ages.Bailey, Michael David. (2007). Magic and Superstition in Europe. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. pp. 88-89. {{ISBN|0-7425-3386-7}} In the constitution of 1572 and public regulations of 1661 of Kur-Saxony, capital punishment was used on those predicting the future.Ennemoser, Joseph. (1856). The History of Magic. London: Henry G. Bohn, York Street, Covent Garden. p. 59 Laws forbidding divination practice continue to this day.WEB,weblink Wiccan Priest Fights Local Ordinance Banning Fortune Telling (Louisiana), pluralism.org, Småland is famous for Årsgång, a practice which occurred until the early 19th century in some parts of Småland. Generally occurring on Christmas and New Year's Eve, it is a practice in which one would fast and keep themselves away from light in a room until midnight to then complete a set of complex events to interpret symbols encountered throughout the journey to foresee the coming year.WEB, Kuusela, Tommy, 2014, Swedish year walk: from folk tradition to computer game. In: Island Dynamics Conference on Folk Belief & Traditions of the Supernatural: Experience, Place, Ritual, & Narrative. Shetland Isles, UK, 24–30 March 2014,weblink

Mesoamerica

{{see also|Mesoamerican religion}}Divination was a central component of ancient Mesoamerican religious life. Many Aztec gods, including central creator gods, were described as diviners and were closely associated with sorcery. Tezcatlipoca is the patron of sorcerers and practitioners of magic. His name means "smoking mirror", a reference to a device used for divinatory scrying.BOOK, Miller, Mary, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico, 2007, Thames & Hudson, London, In the Mayan Popol Vuh, the creator gods Xmucane and Xpiacoc perform divinatory hand casting during the creation of people.Every civilization that developed in pre-Columbian Mexico, from the Olmecs to the Aztecs, practiced divination in daily life, both public and private. Scrying through the use of reflective water surfaces, mirrors, or the casting of lots were among the most widespread forms of divinatory practice. Visions derived from hallucinogens were another important form of divination, and are still widely used among contemporary diviners of Mexico. Among the more common hallucinogenic plants used in divination are morning glory, jimson weed, and peyote.

Contemporary folk religion

Asia

Buddhists in Asia divine by different methods.Keown, Damien. (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford University Press. p. 23. {{ISBN|0-19-860560-9}}{{Vague|date=May 2017}}

Taiwan

As seen previous to this section, many different cultures around the world use divination as a way of understanding the future. The most common act of divination in the Bao’an village in Taiwan is called the Poe, Bao’an is not the actual name of the village, but for privacy purposes that is what it will be called. The Poe translated to English means “moon boards”. The Poe consists of two wood or bamboo blocks cut into the shape of a crescent moon. The one edge is rounded while the other is flat; the two are mirror images. Both crescents are held out in one’s palms and while kneeling, they are raised to the forehead level. Once in this position the blocks are dropped and the future can be understood depending on their landing. If both fall flat side up or both fall rounded side up, that can be taken as a failure of the deity to agree. If the blocks land one rounded and one flat, the deity agrees. “Laughing poe” is when rounded sides land down and they rock before coming to a standstill. “Negative poe” is seen when the flat sides fall downward and abruptly stop, this indicates anger. When there is a positive fall, is called “sacred poe”, although the negative falls are not usually taken seriously. As the blocks are being dropped the question is said in a murmur, and if the answer is yes, the blocks are dropped again. To make sure the answer is definitely a yes, the blocks must fall in a “yes” position three times in a row.
A more serious type of divination is the Kiō-á. There is a small wooden chair, and around the sides of the chair are small pieces of wood that can move up and down in their sockets, this causes a clicking sounds when the chair is moved in any way. Two men hold this chair by its legs before an altar, during this incense are being burned, and the supernatural agent is asked to descend into the chair. It is seen that it is in the chair by an onset of motion. Eventually the chair crashes onto a table prepared with wood chips and burlap. The characters on the table are then traced and these are said to be written by the god who possessed the chair, these characters are then interpreted Rohsenow, Hill Gates, and David K. Jordan. “Gods, Ghosts, and Ancestors: The Folk Religion of a Taiwanese Village.” The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 33, no. 3, 1974, p. 478., doi:10.2307/2052956..In Japan, divination methods include Futomani from the Shinto tradition.

Africa

{{see|African divination}}Divination is one of the tenets of Serer religion. However, only those who have been initiated as Saltigues (the Serer high priests and priestesses) can divine the future.Sarr, Alioune, « Histoire du Sine-Saloum » (introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker), in Bulletin de l'IFAN, tome 46, série B, nos 3-4, 1986-1987 pp 31-38Kalis, Simone, "Medecine Traditionnele Religion et Divination Chez Les Seereer Siin du Senegal", L'Harmattan (1997), pp 11-297 {{ISBN|2-7384-5196-9}} These are the "hereditary rain priests" whose role is both religious and medicinal.Galvan, Dennis Charles, "The State Must be our Master of Fire : How Peasants Craft Culturally Sustainable Development in Senegal", Berkeley, University of California Press, (2004), pp 86-135, {{ISBN|978-0-520-23591-5}}.Specialized diviners called Ob'guega (doctor of Oguega oracle), as well as Ob'Oronmila (doctor of Oronmila oracle) from the Edo people of West Africa for thousands have used divination as a means of foretelling the past, present and future. These diviners are initiated and trained in Iha (divination) of either Ominigbon or Oronmila (Benin Orunmila).The Yoruba people of West Africa are internationally known for having developed the Ifá system, an intricate process of divination that is performed by an Awo, an initiated priest or priestess of Orunmila, the spirit of the Yoruba oracle.

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

Academic

  • K. Beerden, Worlds full of signs: ancient Greek divination in context. Leiden: Brill. (2013).
  • D. Engels, Das römische Vorzeichenwesen (753-27 v.Chr.). Quellen, Terminologie, Kommentar, historische Entwicklung, Stuttgart 2007 (Franz Steiner-Verlag)
  • E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Witchcraft, oracles, and magic among the Azande (1976)
  • Toufic Fahd, La divination arabe; études religieuses, sociologiques et folkloriques sur le milieu natif d’Islam (1966)
  • Philip K. Hitti. Makers of Arab History. Princeton, New Jersey. St. Martin’s Press. 1968. Pg 61.
  • BOOK, Alisa LaGamma, Art and oracle: African art and rituals of divination, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000, 9780870999338,weblink
  • Michael Loewe and Carmen Blacke, eds. Oracles and divination (Shambhala/Random House, 1981) {{ISBN|0-87773-214-0}}
  • W. Montgomery Watt. Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. Edinburgh, Scotland. Oxford Press, 1961. Pgs 1-2.
  • Sonia Silva. "Object and Objectivity in Divination". Material Religion 12 (4), 2016.
  • J. P. Vernant, Divination et rationalité, Paris: Editions du Seuil (1974)

External links

{{wiktionary}}{{wikisource}}{{commons category}} {{Divination}}{{Witchcraft}}{{Authority control}}

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