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National Assembly
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{{short description|Type of legislative body}}{{other uses}}{{refimprove|date=May 2016}}{{Politics}}In politics, a National Assembly is either a unicameral legislature, the lower house{{refn|Nepal and Tajikistan being the exception, with their National Assembly as the higher houses of bicameral Parliament|group=n|name=first}} of a bicameral legislature, or both houses of a bicameral legislature together. In the English language it generally means "an assembly composed of the representatives of the nation."BOOK, Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged with Seven Language Dictionary, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1986, Volume II H to R, Merriam-Webster, The population base represented by this name is manifestly the nation as a whole, as opposed to a geographically select population, such as that represented by a provincial assembly. The powers of a National Assembly vary according to the type of government. It may possess all the powers of government, generally governing by committee, or it may function solely within the legislative branch of the government.The name also must be distinguished from the concept. Conceptually such an institution may appear under variety of names, especially if "national assembly" is being used to translate foreign names of the same concept into English. Also, the degree to which the National Assembly speaks for the nation is a variable. To achieve a quorum, the ancient Athenian Assembly employed Scythian police to arrest citizens at random from the street. On the other hand, the early Parliaments of Europe were mainly of an aristocratic composition. The word had its origins and inspirations from the National Assembly that was responsible for drafting a constitution during the French Revolution.The exact words, "national assembly," have been used prolifically in the international community of nations since the 18th and 19th centuries, considered the Age of Revolution in western Europe. Nations that formed republics in this age subsequently formed empires. Extensive cross-cultural influences brought much of their language and institutions to the provinces. When these empires collapsed finally, the emancipated countries formed states and other institutions on the model of the former imperial nations. Some examples of international influences are as follows:In Germany, a Nationalversammlung was elected following the revolutions of 1848–1849 and 1918–1919, to be replaced by a permanent parliament (Reichstag) later. The legislature of the Estado Novo regime in Portugal was known as the National Assembly, while the Corporative Chamber was a purely advisory chamber. The national assembly was also defined in the Republic of China constitution. This is different from the Legislative Yuan by the ROC constitution. In 2005, Taiwan revised the constitution and national assembly was abolished. Examples have multiplied greatly under the policy of self-determination adopted by the western nations. Many more are to be found in the articles listed below.

Origin of the expression

Perhaps the best known National Assembly was that established during the French Revolution in 1789, known as the Assemblée nationale. Consequently, the name is particularly common in Francophone countries. It was also the name of the legislature during France's First Republic and the Consulate, and since 1946 has been the lower house of the French parliament, first under the Fourth Republic, and from 1958, the Fifth Republic.The expression, however, did not originate in 1789. It was already in use in the French language of the times. Louis XIII of France (1601–1643), par la grace de Dieu Roy de France & de Navarre, in a Declaration of April 14, 1627, concerning the sovereignty of his kingdom, prohibits ministers of foreign countries from any jurisdiction in France, citing, as precedent, his Lettres de Declaration of April 17, 1623, forbidding religious officials from treating with foreign countries. He describes his Declaration as ordonné qu'en Assemblées Provinciales & Nationales des nosdites sujets.BOOK, Recueil des actes, titres et mémoires, concernant les affaires du clergé de France, augmenté d'un grand nombre de Pieces, & mis en nouvel ordre, Jean, Le Gentil, 1675, VI, 731, Paris, Frederic Leonard, This was the "registration" that the Parlement of Paris refused to perform for Louis XVI of France in 1787–1788. When the Estates-General of 1789 formed the National Assembly of 1789, they did not believe they were instituting anything new. In the Assembly of Notables of 1787, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette had used National Assembly and Estates General synonymously when he suggested that France needed a national assembly to solve its financial problems.National Assembly is also found in some Commonwealth countries. Its use there is not a translation of Assemblée nationale, as the phrase is equally embedded in the English language. For example, at the end of the First English Civil War, an Act of Parliament, 1648, "Concerning the Members of the Classical and Congregational Presbyteries, in the several counties of the Kingdom of England, and Dominion of Wales," establishes a national congregational church in England and Wales, corresponding to the presbyteries of Scotland. The language is: "The National Assembly shall be constituted of members chosen by and sent from the several Provincial Assemblies."BOOK, The civil warres of Great Britain and Ireland: containing an exact history of their occasion, originall, progress, and happy end, John, Davies, John, Dancer, London, Printed by R.W. for Philip Chetwind, 1661, 238, This National Assembly appears to have no direct link to any French words, although the concept is the same.">

Unicameral national legislatures{| class"wikitable"

! Country !! Article !! Local Name
Albania >National Assembly of Albania >| Kuvendi i Shqipërisë
Angola >National Assembly of Angola >| Assembleia Nacional
Armenia >National Assembly of Armenia >| Ô±Õ¦Õ£Õ¡ÕµÕ«Õ¶ ÔºÕ¸Õ²Õ¸Õ¾
Azerbaijan >National Assembly of Azerbaijan >| Milli Məclis
Benin >National Assembly of Benin >| Assemblée Nationale
Bhutan >National Assembly of Bhutan >|
Botswana >National Assembly of Botswana >|
Bulgaria >National Assembly of Bulgaria >| Народно събрание
Burkina Faso >National Assembly of Burkina Faso >| Assemblée Nationale
Cameroon >National Assembly of Cameroon >|
Cape Verde >National Assembly of Cape Verde >| Assembleia Nacional
Central African Republic >National Assembly of the Central African Republic >| Assemblée Nationale
Chad >National Assembly of Chad >| Assemblée Nationale
Cuba >National Assembly of People's Power >| Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular
Djibouti >National Assembly of Djibouti >| Assemblée Nationale
Eritrea >National Assembly of Eritrea >|
Gambia >National Assembly of Gambia >|
Greece >National Assembly of Greece >|
Guinea >National Assembly of Guinea >| Assemblée Nationale
Guinea-Bissau >National People's Assembly of Guinea-Bissau >|
Guyana >National Assembly of Guyana >|
Hungary >National Assembly of Hungary >| Országgyűlés
Ivory Coast >National Assembly of Ivory Coast >|
Kuwait >National Assembly of Kuwait >| مجلس الامة
Kurdistan Regional Government >Kurdistan National Assembly >| المجلس الوطني لكوردستان
Laos >National Assembly of Laos >|
Malawi >National Assembly of Malawi >|
Mali >National Assembly of Mali >| Assemblée Nationale
Mauritius >National Assembly of Mauritius >|
Nicaragua >National Assembly of Nicaragua >| Asamblea Nacional
Niger >National Assembly of Niger >| Assemblée Nationale
North Korea >Supreme People’s Assembly >| 최고인민회의 (Choego Inmin Hoe-ui)
Pakistan >National Assembly of Pakistan >مجلس شوریٰ
Panama >National Assembly of Panama >| Asamblea Nacional de Panamá
Saint Kitts and Nevis >National Assembly of Saint Kitts and Nevis >|
São Tomé and Príncipe >National Assembly of São Tomé and Príncipe >| Assembleia Nacional
Senegal >National Assembly of Senegal >| Assemblée Nationale
Serbia >National Assembly of Serbia >| Народна скупштина Србије (Narodna skupština Srbije)
Seychelles >National Assembly of Seychelles >|
South Korea >National Assembly of the Republic of Korea >| 국회 (Gukhoe)
Sudan >National Assembly of Sudan >|
Suriname >National Assembly of Suriname >| Nationale Assemblee
Tanzania >National Assembly of Tanzania >|
Togo >National Assembly of Togo >| Assemblée Nationale
Turkey >Grand National Assembly of Turkey >| Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi
Uganda >National Assembly of Uganda >|
Venezuela >National Assembly of Venezuela >| Asamblea Nacional
Vietnam >National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam >| Quốc hội nước Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam
Wales >National Assembly for Wales >| Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru
Zambia >National Assembly of Zambia >|
">

Lower house of bicameral national legislature{|class"wikitable"

! Country !! Article !! Local Name
Algeria >| People's National Assembly
Bhutan >| National Assembly of Bhutan
Burundi >| National Assembly of Burundi
Cambodia >National Assembly of Cambodia >| រដ្ឋសភាកម្ពុជា (Rodsaphea)
Democratic Republic of the Congo>Congo (DRC) National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Assemblée nationale
Republic of the Congo>Congo (Rep.) National Assembly of the Republic of the Congo Assemblée nationale
France >National Assembly of France >| Assemblée nationale
Ivory Coast >National Assembly of Ivory Coast >| Assemblée nationale
Kenya >National Assembly (Kenya)>National Assembly of Kenya
Gabon >| National Assembly of Gabon
Lesotho >| National Assembly of Lesotho
Madagascar >| National Assembly of Madagascar
Mauritania >National Assembly (Mauritania)>National Assembly
Namibia >| National Assembly of Namibia
Pakistan >National Assembly of Pakistan >| مجلس شوری
Slovenia >National Assembly of Slovenia >| Državni zbor
South Africa >| National Assembly of South Africa
">

Upper house of bicameral national legislature{| class"wikitable"

! Country !! Article !! Local Name
Tajikistan >National Assembly of Tajikistan >| Majlisi Milliy
Nepal >National Assembly of Nepal >|
">

Entire bicameral legislature{|class"wikitable"

! Country !! Article !! Local Name
Afghanistan >National Assembly of Afghanistan >|ملی شورا
Bahrain >National Assembly of Bahrain >|
Belarus >National Assembly of Belarus >| Нацыянальны сход/Национальное собрание
Belize >National Assembly of Belize >|
Haiti >National Assembly of Haiti >| Assemblée Nationale
Jordan >National Assembly of Jordan >| Majlis al-Umma
Nigeria >National Assembly of Nigeria >|
Poland >National Assembly of Poland >| Zgromadzenie Narodowe
Russia >Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation >|
Thailand >National Assembly of Thailand >| รัฐสภา
Tunisia >Parliament of Tunisia>National Assembly of Tunisia
">

Historical{|class"wikitable"

! Country/Territory !! Name !! Period !! Notes
Batavian Republic, Netherlands >National Assembly of the Batavian Republic: - First National Assembly - Second National Assembly >|
Republic of China >National Assembly of the Republic of China >constitutional convention (political meeting)>constitutional convention
Estonia >Riigikogu>Rahvuskogu 1937 Constituent assembly
Germany ("Weimar Republic") >Weimar National Assembly >|
Nepal >National Assembly of Nepal>|
Philippines >Revolutionary Government of the Philippines>National Assembly of Representatives National Assembly of the Philippines National Assembly of the Second Philippine Republic 1898-1899 1935-1941 25 September 1943 - 2 February 1944 During Japanese occupation
|Portugal|National Assembly of Portugal|1933-1974
Estado Novo (Portugal)>Estado Novo dictatorship
">

Other{|class"wikitable"

! Country/Territory !! Name !! Local Name !! Notes
Iraq >National Assembly of Iraq >constitutional convention (political meeting)>constitutional convention
Quebec, Canada >National Assembly of Quebec>Assemblée nationale du Québec >unicameral Legislative Assemblies of Canada's provinces and territories>provincial legislative assembly
Republika Srpska >National Assembly (Republika Srpska) >| Autonomous entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Wales >National Assembly for Wales >Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru >Act of the National Assembly for Wales>Acts of the Assembly and Delegated legislation

See also

Notes

References

{{reflist}}

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