aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Short description|Abrahamic monotheistic religion}}{{About|the religion||Islam (disambiguation)}}{{good article}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2022}}{{Use Oxford spelling|date=May 2022}}

{{transliterationAl-Islām}}|image=The Kaaba during Hajj.jpgcaption=The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site|type=Abrahamic religions>Abrahamic|scripture=QuranGod in Islam>MonotheisticMiddle East, North Africa, East Africa, Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Southeastern EuropeCENTER DATE=2013-04-30 URL=HTTPS://WWW.PEWRESEARCH.ORG/RELIGION/2013/04/30/THE-WORLDS-MUSLIMS-RELIGION-POLITICS-SOCIETY-OVERVIEW/ WEBSITE=PEW RESEARCH CENTER'S RELIGION & PUBLIC LIFE PROJECT ARCHIVE-DATE=25 OCTOBER 2023 URL-STATUS=LIVE, |language=Quranic Arabic|territory=Muslim worldReligion in pre-Islamic Arabia>Arabian polytheismMuhammadWELCH LAST2=MOUSSALLI LAST3=NEWBY DATE=2009 ENCYCLOPEDIA=THE OXFORD ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD PUBLISHER=OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS URL=HTTP://WWW.OXFORDISLAMICSTUDIES.COM/ARTICLE/OPR/T236/E0550 URL-STATUS=USURPED ARCHIVE-DATE=11 FEBRUARY 2017, |founded_date=610 CEJabal al-Nour, Mecca Province>Mecca, Hejaz, Arabian Peninsulanumber_of_followers={{circa}} Islam by countryRELIGIOUS COMPOSITION BY COUNTRY, 2010-2050 ACCESS-DATE=2024-03-09 DATE=21 DECEMBER 2022 ARCHIVE-DATE=28 JANUARY 2023 URL-STATUS=LIVE, {{increase}} (individually referred to as Muslims, collectively referred to as the {{transliterationUmmah}})BábismENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM ARTICLE=BāB LOCATION=LEIDEN, THE NETHERLANDS LAST=BAUSANI, Baháʼí FaithVAN DER VYER >FIRST=J.D. TITLE=RELIGIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE: RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES ISBN=90-411-0176-4 URL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.ORG/DETAILS/RELIGIOUSHUMANRI0000UNSE Druze FaithTHE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN ISLAMLAST=YAZBECK HADDAD ISBN=9780199862634PUBLISHER=OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, }}{{Islam|expanded=}}Islam ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|ɪ|z|l|ɑː|m|,_|ˈ|ɪ|z|l|æ|m}} {{respell|IZ|la(h)m}};WEB, English pronunciation of Islam,weblink Cambridge Dictionary, 19 Dec 2023, 22 January 2021,weblink live, , {{IPA|ar|alʔɪsˈlaːm|IPA}}, {{lit|submission [to the will of God]}}) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centered on the Quran and the teachings of Muhammad, the religion's founder. Adherents of Islam are called Muslims, who are estimated to number approximately 1.9 billion worldwide and are the world's second-largest religious population after Christians.WEB,weblink Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project - Research and data from Pew Research Center, 21 December 2022, 27 November 2023, 5 February 2023,weblink live, Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times through earlier prophets and messengers, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran to be the verbatim word of God and the unaltered, final revelation. Alongside the Quran, Muslims also believe in previous revelations, such as the Tawrat (the Torah), the Zabur (Psalms), and the Injil (Gospel). They believe that Muhammad is the main and final Islamic prophet, through whom the religion was completed. The teachings and normative examples of Muhammad, called the sunnah, documented in accounts called the hadith, provide a constitutional model for Muslims. Islam emphasizes that God is one and incomparable. It states that there will be a "Final Judgment" wherein the righteous will be rewarded in paradise ({{Transliteration|ar|jannah}}) and the unrighteous will be punished in hell ({{Transliteration|ar|jahannam}}). The Five Pillars—considered obligatory acts of worship—comprise the Islamic oath and creed ({{Transliteration|ar|shahada}}); daily prayers ({{Transliteration|ar|salah}}); almsgiving ({{Transliteration|ar|zakat}}); fasting ({{Transliteration|ar|sawm}}) in the month of Ramadan; and a pilgrimage ({{Transliteration|ar|hajj}}) to Mecca. Islamic law, sharia, touches on virtually every aspect of life, from banking and finance and welfare to men's and women's roles and the environment. The two main religious festivals are Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. The three holiest sites in Islam are Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Prophet's Mosque in Medina, and al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.The religion of Islam originated in Mecca in 610 CE. Muslims believe this is when Muhammad received his first revelation. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. Muslim rule expanded outside Arabia under the Rashidun Caliphate and the subsequent Umayyad Caliphate ruled from the Iberian Peninsula to the Indus Valley. In the Islamic Golden Age, specifically during the reign of the Abbasid Caliphate, much of the Muslim world experienced a scientific, economic and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various states and caliphates as well as extensive trade and religious conversion as a result of Islamic missionary activities (dawah), as well as through conquests, imperialism, and colonialism.The two main Islamic branches are Sunni Islam (85–90%) and Shia Islam (10–15%). While the Shia–Sunni divide initially arose from disagreements over the succession to Muhammad, they grew to cover a broader dimension, both theologically and juridically. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Approximately 12% of the world's Muslims live in Indonesia, the most populous Muslim-majority country; {{#expr: 100 * 480/1570 round 0}}% live in South Asia; 20% live in the Middle East–North Africa; and 15% live in sub-Saharan Africa. Muslim communities are also present in the Americas, China, and Europe. Largely due to having a high proportion of young people, and a high fertility rate, Muslims are the world's fastest-growing major religious group.


{{See also|Muslims#Etymology}}In Arabic, Islam ()WEB, Definition of Islam {{!, |url= |access-date=2022-05-09 | |language=en |archive-date=9 May 2022 |archive-url= |url-status=live }}BOOK, Haywood, John, Historical Atlas of the Medieval World (AD 600 - 1492), Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2002, 0-7607-1975-6, 1st, Spain, 3.13, en, is the verbal noun of (wikt:أسلم#Arabic|Form IV) originating from the verb ({{transliteration|ar|salama}}), from the triliteral root ({{transliteration|ar|S-L-M}}), which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of submission, safeness, and peace."Siin {{Webarchive|url= |date=7 September 2011 }}." Lane's Lexicon 4. – via StudyQuran. In a religious context, it refers to the total surrender to the will of God.BOOK, Lewis, Barnard, Churchill, Buntzie Ellis,weblink Islam: The Religion and The People, Wharton School Publishing, 2009, 978-0-13-223085-8, 8, A Muslim (), the word for a follower of Islam,"weblink" title="">Muslim." Lexico. UK: Oxford University Press. 2020. is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter (to God)" or "one who surrenders (to God)". In the Hadith of Gabriel, Islam is presented as one part of a triad that also includes {{transliteration|ar|imān}} (faith), and {{transliteration|ar|ihsān}} (excellence).{{sfnp|Esposito|2000|pp=76–77}}BOOK, Mahmutćehajić, Rusmir,weblink The mosque: the heart of submission, Fordham University Press, 2006, 978-0-8232-2584-2, 84, registration, Islam itself was historically called Mohammedanism in the English-speaking world. This term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive, as it suggests that a human being, rather than God, is central to Muslims' religion.BOOK, Oxford University Press, Gibb, Sir Hamilton, Mohammedanism: an historical survey, 9780195002454, 1969, 1, Modern Muslims dislike the terms Mohammedan and Mohammedanism, which seem to them to carry the implication of worship of Mohammed, as Christian and Christianity imply the worship of Christ.,

Articles of faith

The Islamic creed (aqidah) requires belief in six articles: God, angels, revelation, prophets, the Day of Resurrection, and the divine predestination.BOOK, Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and Spirituality, New World Library, 68–9,weblink Joel, Beversluis, 2011, 9781577313328, 15 January 2023, 28 December 2023,weblink live,


File:Istanbul,_Hagia_Sophia,_Allah.jpg|thumb|Calligraphy showing the word Allah in Arabic in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, TurkeyTurkeyThe central concept of Islam is tawḥīd (), the oneness of God. It is usually thought of as a precise monotheism, but is also panentheistic in Islamic mystical teachings.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Tawhid, Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 September 2021, subscription, 7 November 2021,weblink live, {{harvc |last=Gimaret|first=D.|year=2012|c=Tawḥīd |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.)}} {{doi|10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_7454}} God is seen as incomparable and without partners such as in the Christian Trinity, and associating partners to God or attributing God's attributes to others is seen as idolatory, called shirk. God is seen as transcendent of creation and so is beyond comprehension. Thus, Muslims are not iconodules and do not attribute forms to God. God is instead described and referred to by several names or attributes, the most common being Ar-Rahmān () meaning "The Entirely Merciful," and Ar-Rahīm () meaning "The Especially Merciful" which are invoked at the beginning of most chapters of the Quran.BOOK, Ali, Kecia, Islam : the key concepts, 2008, Routledge, Leaman, Oliver, 978-0-415-39638-7, London, 123136939, {{sfnp|Campo|2009|p=34|loc="Allah"}}Islam teaches that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's command as expressed by the wording, "Be, and it is,"{{qref|2|117|b=yl}}ENCYCLOPEDIA, Schimmel, Annemarie, Annemarie Schimmel, Islam,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 September 2021, subscription, 4 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink live, and that the purpose of existence is to worship God.Leeming, David. 2005. The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-195-15669-0}}. p. 209. He is viewed as a personal god and there are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God. Consciousness and awareness of God is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is a term with no plural or gender being ascribed to it and is also used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews in reference to God, whereas {{transliteration|ar|ISO|ʾilāh}} () is a term used for a deity or a god in general.WEB, God,weblink 18 December 2010, Islam: Empire of Faith, PBS, 27 March 2014,weblink" title="">weblink live,


File:Miniatura_Maometto.jpg|thumb|A 16th century Siyer-i Nebi image of the angel GabrielGabrielAngels (, {{transliteration|ar|ALA|malak}}) are beings described in the Quran{{sfnp|Burge|2015|p=23}} and hadith.{{sfnp|Burge|2015|p=79}} They are described as created to worship God and also to serve in other specific duties such as communicating revelations from God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are described as being created variously from 'light' (nūr)"Nūr {{Webarchive|url= |date=23 April 2022 }}." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. – via{{harvc|last1=Hartner, W.|last2=Tj Boer |year=2012 |c=Nūr |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.)}} {{doi|10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0874}}{{harvc |last=Elias |first=Jamal J. |year=2003|c=Light |in=McAuliffe}} {{doi|10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQSIM_00261}} or 'fire' (nār).{{harvc |last=Campo |first=Juan E. |url= |c=Nar |in=Martin |year=2004}}. – via{{harvc|last=Fahd, T. |year=2012 |c=Nār |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.)}} {{doi|10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0846}}{{harvc |last=Toelle |first=Heidi |year=2002 |c=Fire |in=McAuliffe}} {{doi|10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQSIM_00156}}{{harvp|McAuliffe|2003|p=45}} Islamic angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles.{{sfnp|Burge|2015|pp=97–99}}{{harvp|Esposito|2002b|pp=26–28}}{{harvc |last=Webb |first=Gisela |c=Angel |year=n.d. |in=McAuliffe}}{{harvc|last1=MacDonald, D. B.|last2=Madelung, W. |year=2012 |c=Malāʾika |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.)}}{{doi|10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0642}} Common characteristics for angels include a lack of bodily needs and desires, such as eating and drinking.{{sfnp|Çakmak|2017|p=140}} Some of them, such as Gabriel (Jibrīl) and Michael (Mika'il), are mentioned by name in the Quran. Angels play a significant role in literature about the Mi'raj, where Muhammad encounters several angels during his journey through the heavens.{{sfnp|Burge|2015|p=79}} Further angels have often been featured in Islamic eschatology, theology and philosophy.{{sfnp|Burge|2015|p=22}}


File:Qur'an_and_Rehal.jpg|thumb|right|A Quran manuscript resting on a rehal, a book rest for the holy text]]{{See also|History of the Quran}}The pre-eminent holy text of Islam is the Quran. Muslims believe that the verses of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad by God, through the archangel Gabriel, on multiple occasions between 610 CE{{harvc|c=Muhammad|in=Encyclopaedia of Islam Online|year=n.d.|last2=Welch|first2=A.T.|last1=Buhl|first1=F.}}BOOK, Watt, William Montgomery,weblink Islam and the Integration of Society, 2003, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-17587-6, 5, 15 June 2021, 28 December 2023,weblink live, and 632, the year Muhammad died.{{sfnp|Esposito|2004|pp=17–18, 21}} While Muhammad was alive, these revelations were written down by his companions, although the primary method of transmission was orally through memorization.JOURNAL, Al Faruqi, Lois Ibsen, Lois Lamya al-Faruqi, 1987, The Cantillation of the Qur'an, Society for Asian Music, Asian Music, Autumn – Winter 1987, 3–4, The Quran is divided into 114 chapters (sÅ«rah) which contain a combined 6,236 verses (āyāt). The chronologically earlier chapters, revealed at Mecca, are concerned primarily with spiritual topics, while the later Medinan chapters discuss more social and legal issues relevant to the Muslim community.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ringgren, Helmer,weblink Qurʾān, Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 September 2021, subscription, 5 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink live, "The word Quran was invented and first used in the Quran itself. There are two different theories about this term and its formation." Muslim jurists consult the hadith ('accounts'), or the written record of Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Quran and assist with its interpretation. The science of Quranic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink TafsÄ«r, 17 September 2021, subscription, 19 October 2021,weblink live, {{sfnp|Esposito|2004|pp=79–81}} In addition to its religious significance, the Quran is widely regarded as the finest work in Arabic literature,BOOK, Alan, Jones, London, Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1994, 1, The Koran, "Its outstanding literary merit should also be noted: it is by far, the finest work of Arabic prose in existence.", 1842126091, BOOK, Arthur, Arberry, The Koran Interpreted, London, Allen & Unwin, 1956, "It may be affirmed that within the literature of the Arabs, wide and fecund as it is both in poetry and in elevated prose, there is nothing to compare with it.", 191, 0684825074, and has influenced art and the Arabic language.Kadi, Wadad, and Mustansir Mir. "Literature and the Quran." In Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an 3. pp. 213, 216.Islam also holds that God has sent revelations, called wahy, to different prophets numerous times throughout history. However, Islam teaches that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, such as the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospel), have become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both,{{harvp|Esposito|2002b|pp=4–5}}{{harvp|Peters|2003|p=9}}{{harvc|c=Muhammad |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam Online|year=n.d. |last2=Welch |first2=A.T. |last1=Buhl |first1=F.}}{{harvc|c=Tahrif |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam Online|year=n.d. |author=Hava Lazarus-Yafeh}} while the Quran (lit. 'Recitation') is viewed as the final, verbatim and unaltered word of God.{{harvp|Teece|2003|pp=12–13}}{{harvp|Turner|2006|p=42}}{{sfnp|Bennett|2010|p=101}}


File:Medieval Persian manuscript Muhammad leads Abraham Moses Jesus.jpg|thumb|left|A 15th centuryWEB, BnF. Département des Manuscrits. Supplément turc 190,weblink Bibliothèque nationale de France, 7 September 2023, 9 September 2023,weblink live, Persian miniature depicting Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer]]Prophets (Arabic: ) are believed to have been chosen by God to preach a divine message. Some of these prophets additionally deliver a new book and are called "messengers" ().Esposito, J. L. (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Vereinigtes Königreich: Oxford University Press, US. p. 225 Muslims believe prophets are human and not divine. All of the prophets are said to have preached the same basic message of Islam – submission to the will of God – to various nations in the past, and this is said to account for many similarities among religions. The Quran recounts the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.BOOK, Reeves, J. C.,weblink Bible and Qurʼān: Essays in scriptural intertextuality, Brill Publishers, Brill, 2004, 90-04-12726-7, Leiden, 177, 21 August 2019, 19 April 2023,weblink live, The stories associated with the prophets beyond the Quranic accounts are collected and explored in the Qisas al-Anbiya (Stories of the Prophets).Muslims believe that God sent Muhammad as the final prophet ("Seal of the prophets") to convey the completed message of Islam.Esposito, John L. 2009. "Islam." In {{Doi-inline|10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001|The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World}}, edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-19-530513-5}}. (See also: quick reference {{Webarchive|url= |date=10 January 2021 }}.) "Profession of Faith...affirms Islam's absolute monotheism and acceptance of Muḥammad as the messenger of Allah, the last and final prophet."Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In {{Doi-inline|10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001|The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World}}, edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-19-530513-5}}. (See also: quick reference {{Webarchive|url= |date=26 September 2020 }}.) "[T]he Muslims' understanding of Allāh is based...on the Qurʿān's public witness. Allāh is Unique, the Creator, Sovereign, and Judge of mankind. It is Allāh who directs the universe through his direct action on nature and who has guided human history through his prophets, Abraham, with whom he made his covenant, Moses/Moosa, Jesus/Eesa, and Muḥammad, through all of whom he founded his chosen communities, the 'Peoples of the Book.{{'"}} In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the sunnah (literally "trodden path"). Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's moral behaviors in their daily lives, and the sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Quran.{{harvp|Martin|2004|p=666}}{{harvc|c=Hadith|in=Encyclopaedia of Islam Online|year=n.d.|author=J. Robson}}{{harvc|c=Sunna|in=Encyclopaedia of Islam Online|year=n.d.|author=D.W. Brown}}BOOK, Goldman, Elizabeth, Believers: Spiritual Leaders of the World, 1995, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-508240-1, Oxford, 63, This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith, which are accounts of his words, actions, and personal characteristics. Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, regarded as God's verbatim words quoted by Muhammad that are not part of the Quran. A hadith involves two elements: a chain of narrators, called sanad, and the actual wording, called matn. There are various methodologies to classify the authenticity of hadiths, with the commonly used grading grading scale being "authentic" or "correct" (); "good", hasan (); or "weak" (), among others. The Kutub al-Sittah are a collection of six books, regarded as the most authentic reports in Sunni Islam. Among them is Sahih al-Bukhari, often considered by Sunnis to be one of the most authentic sources after the, Aisha Abd, ed. 1990. Muqaddimah Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ. Cairo: Dar al-Ma'arif, 1990. pp. 160–69 Another well-known source of hadiths is known as The Four Books, which Shias consider as the most authentic hadith reference.Awliya'i, Mustafa. "The Four Books {{Webarchive|url= |date=12 September 2017 }}." In Outlines of the Development of the Science of Hadith 1, translated by A. Q. Qara'i. – via Retrieved 24 May 2020.Rizvi, Sayyid Sa'eed Akhtar. "The Hadith §The Four Books (Al-Kutubu'l-Arb'ah) {{Webarchive|url= |date=12 September 2017 }}." Ch 4 in The Qur'an and Hadith. Tanzania: Bilal Muslim Mission. – via Retrieved 24 May 2020.

Resurrection and judgment

missing image!
- Syria, Damascus, The Umayyad Mosque.jpg -
The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, where Islamic tradition says Isa (Jesus, seen as an Islamic prophet) will appear close to the Day of Judgment
Belief in the "Day of Resurrection" or Yawm al-Qiyāmah () is also crucial for Muslims. It is believed that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God, but unknown to man. The Quran and the hadith, as well as the commentaries of scholars, describe the trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah. The Quran emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.{{harvp|Glassé|2003|loc="Resurrection"|pp=382–383}}{{harvp|Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.)|2012|loc="Avicenna"}}. {{doi|10.1163/1573-3912_islam_DUM_0467}}: "Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Sīnā is known in the West as 'Avicenna'."{{harvc|c=Qiyama |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam Online|year=n.d. |author=Gardet, L.}}On Yawm al-Qiyāmah, Muslims believe all humankind will be judged by their good and bad deeds and consigned to Jannah (paradise) or Jahannam (hell).WEB, Esposito, John L., John Esposito, Eschatology,weblink subscription, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford Islamic Studies Online, 18 April 2017, 13 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink dead, The Quran in Surat al-Zalzalah describes this as: "So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it. And whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it." The Quran lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell. However, the Quran makes it clear that God will forgive the sins of those who repent if he wishes. Good deeds, like charity, prayer, and compassion towards animals{{sfnp|Esposito|2011|p=130}} will be rewarded with entry to heaven. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and blessings, with Quranic references describing its features. Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.{{harvp|Smith|2006|p=89}}; Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, p. 565{{harvc |c=Garden |first=Asma |last=Afsaruddin |year=n.d. |in=McAuliffe}}ENCYCLOPEDIA, Paradise, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Yawm al-Qiyāmah is also identified in the Quran as Yawm ad-Dīn ( "Day of Religion");{{qref|1|4|b=y}}; as-Sāʿah ( "the Last Hour");{{qref|6|31|b=y}}; and al-Qāriʿah ( "The Clatterer").{{qref|101|1|b=y}}

Divine predestination

The concept of divine predestination in Islam (, {{transliteration|ar|DIN|al-qadāʾ wa l-qadar}}) means that every matter, good or bad, is believed to have been decreed by God. Al-qadar, meaning "power", derives from a root that means "to measure" or "calculating".WEB,weblink 2002, Andras Rajki's A. E. D. (Arabic Etymological Dictionary), dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2011, 13 November 2020, {{harvp|Cohen-Mor|2001|p=4}}: "The idea of predestination is reinforced by the frequent mention of events 'being written' or 'being in a book' before they happen": Say: "Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us..."{{harvc |last=Karamustafa |first=Ahmet T. |c=Fate |year=n.d. |in=McAuliffe}}: The verb qadara literally means "to measure, to determine". Here it is used to mean that "God measures and orders his creation".{{harvc |last=Gardet|first=L.|year=2012|c=al-Ḳaḍāʾ Wa 'l-Ḳadar |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.)}} {{doi|10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0407}} Muslims often express this belief in divine destiny with the phrase "In-sha-Allah" () meaning "if God wills" when speaking on future events.WEB, Muslim beliefs – Al-Qadr,weblink 13 November 2020, BBC, Bitesize – GCSE – Edexcel, 15 November 2020,weblink live,

Acts of worship

There are five acts of worship that are considered duties – the Shahada (declaration of faith), the five daily prayers, Zakat (alms-giving), fasting during Ramadan and the Hajj pilgrimage – collectively known as "The Pillars of Islam" (Arkān al-Islām).WEB,weblink Pillars of Islam | Islamic Beliefs & Practices | Britannica,, 3 May 2023, 16 December 2021, 5 September 2015,weblink live, In addition, Muslims also perform other optional supererogatory acts that are encouraged but not considered to be duties.JOURNAL, ZAROUG, ABDULLAHI HASSAN, 1985, THE CONCEPT OF PERMISSION, SUPEREROGATORY ACTS AND ASETICISM [sic] IN ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE,weblink Islamic Studies, 24, 2, 167–180, 20847307, 0578-8072, 7 January 2023, 7 December 2022,weblink live,

Declaration of faith

File:Silver Rupee Akbar.jpg|thumb|right|Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor AkbarAkbarThe shahadah{{sfnp|Nasr|2003|pp=3, 39, 85, 270–272}} is an oath declaring belief in Islam. The expanded statement is "{{transliteration|ar|DIN|ʾašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh}}" (), or, "I testify that there is no deity except God and I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God."Mohammad, N. 1985. "The doctrine of jihad: An introduction." Journal of Law and Religion 3(2):381–97. Islam is sometimes argued to have a very simple creed with the shahada being the premise for the rest of the religion. Non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the shahada in front of witnesses.{{harvc |last=Kasim |first=Husain |year=2004 |c=Islam |pp=195–197 |in=Salamone}}Galonnier, Juliette. "Moving In or Moving Toward? Reconceptualizing Conversion to Islam as a Liminal Process1". Moving In and Out of Islam, edited by Karin van Nieuwkerk, New York, US: University of Texas Press, 2021, pp. 44-66.weblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=28 December 2023 }}


{{See also|Mosque|Jumu'ah}}File:Mosque.jpg|thumb|Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, DamascusDamascusPrayer in Islam, called as-salah or aṣ-ṣalāt (), is seen as a personal communication with God and consists of repeating units called rakat that include bowing and prostrating to God. There are five timed prayers each day that are considered duties. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language and performed in the direction of the Kaaba. The act also requires a state ritual purity achieved by means of the either a routine wudu ritual wash or, in certain circumstances, a ghusl full body ritual wash.{{harvp|Esposito|2002b|pp=18, 19}}{{harvp|Hedayetullah|2006|pp=53–55}}{{harvp|Kobeisy|2004|pp=22–34}}{{harvp|Momen|1987|p=178}}A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name masjid. Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also an important social center for the Muslim community. For example, the Masjid an-Nabawi ("Prophetic Mosque") in Medina, Saudi Arabia, used to also serve as a shelter for the poor.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Mattson, Ingrid, 2006, Women, Islam, and Mosques, 615–629, Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America, Volume 2, Part VII. Islam, R. S. Keller, and, R. R. Ruether, Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 978-0-253-34687-2,weblink 2 October 2021, 28 December 2023,weblink live, Minarets are towers used to call the adhan, a vocal call to signal the prayer time.Pedersen, J., R. Hillenbrand, J. Burton-Page, et al. 2010. "{{Doi-inline|10.1163/9789004206106_eifo_COM_0694|Masd̲j̲id}}." Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: Brill. Retrieved 25 May 2020.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Mosque, Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 September 2021, subscription, 28 September 2021,weblink live,


{{See also|Sadaqah}}File:Slot at the Zaouia Moulay Idriss II 1.jpg|thumb|A slot for giving zakat at the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II in Fez, MoroccoFez, MoroccoZakat (Arabic: ), also spelled Zakāt or Zakah, is a type of almsgiving characterized by the giving of a fixed portion (2.5% annually)Ahmed, Medani, and Sebastian Gianci. "Zakat." p. 479 in Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy. of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, such as for freeing captives, those in debt, or for (stranded) travellers, and for those employed to collect zakat. It acts as a form of welfare in Muslim societies.BOOK, Ariff, Mohamed,weblink The Islamic Voluntary Sector in Southeast Asia: Islam and the Economic Development of Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1991, 978-981-3016-07-1, 55–, 7 October 2017, 28 December 2023,weblink live, It is considered a religious obligation that the well-off owe the needy because their wealth is seen as a trust from God's bounty,{{harvp|Esposito|2010|p=109-110}}:This is not regarded as charity because it is not really voluntary but instead is owed, by those who have received their wealth as a trust from God's bounty, to the poor. and is seen as a purification of one's excess wealth.BOOK, RoutledgeCurzon, 9780415297967, Major World Religions: From Their Origins to the Present., United Kingdom, 2003, Ridgeon, Lloyd, 258, Aside from its function of purifying believers' wealth, the payment of zakat may have contributed in no small way to the economic welfare of the Muslim community in Mecca., The total annual value contributed due to zakat is 15 times greater than global humanitarian aid donations, using conservative estimates.NEWS, 1 June 2012, A faith-based aid revolution in the Muslim world, The New Humanitarian,weblink 27 August 2023, 14 January 2021,weblink live, Sadaqah, as opposed to Zakat, is a much-encouraged optional charity.BOOK, Said, Abdul Aziz,weblink Contemporary Islam: Dynamic, Not Static, Taylor & Francis, 2006, 978-0-415-77011-8, 145, etal, 7 October 2017, 28 December 2023,weblink live, {{sfnp|Stefon|2010|p=72}} A waqf is a perpetual charitable trust, which finances hospitals and schools in Muslim societies.BOOK, Hudson, A., Equity and Trusts, 2003, 3rd, 32, London, Cavendish Publishing, 1-85941-729-9,


File:Iftar for Ramadhan.jpg|thumb|A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates.]]{{See also|Fasting during Ramadan}}In Islam, fasting (Arabic: ) precludes food and drink, as well as other forms of consumption, such as smoking, and is performed from dawn to sunset. During the month of Ramadan, it is considered a duty for Muslims to fast.WEB, Ramadan,weblink 2023-08-16,, en, 9 October 2023,weblink live, The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God by restraining oneself for God's sake from what is otherwise permissible and to think of the needy. In addition, there are other days, such as the Day of Arafah, when fasting is optional.BOOK, Tughra Books, 9781597846110, Fasting In Islam And The Month Of Ramadan, United States, 2006, Ramadanali, 51,


{{See also|Holiest sites in Islam}}File:A packed house - Flickr - Al Jazeera English.jpg|thumb|right|Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the HajjHajjThe Islamic pilgrimage, called the "{{transliteration|ar|ALA|ḥajj}}" (), is to be done at least once a lifetime by every Muslim with the means to do so during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah. Rituals of the Hajj mostly imitate the story of the family of Abraham. In Mecca, pilgrims walk seven times around the Kaaba, which Muslims believe Abraham built as a place of worship, and they walk seven times between Mount Safa and Marwa, recounting the steps of Abraham's wife, Hagar, who was looking for water for her baby Ishmael in the desert before Mecca developed into a settlement.{{harvp|Goldschmidt|Davidson|2005|p=48}}{{harvp|Farah|1994|pp=145–147}}ENCYCLOPEDIA, Hajj, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, The pilgrimage also involves spending a day praying and worshipping in the plain of Mount Arafat as well as symbolically stoning the Devil.BOOK, Peters, F.E., Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians, 2009, 978-1-4008-2548-6,weblink 20, Princeton University Press, 7 October 2014, 28 December 2023,weblink live, All Muslim men wear only two simple white unstitched pieces of cloth called ihram, intended to bring continuity through generations and uniformity among pilgrims despite class or origin.BOOK, Cornell, Vincent J., Voices of Islam: Voices of tradition,weblink 26 August 2012, 2007, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-275-98733-6, 29, BOOK, Glassé, Cyril, Smith, Huston, The New Encyclopedia of Islam,weblink 26 August 2012, 1 February 2003, Rowman Altamira, 978-0-7591-0190-6, 207, Another form of pilgrimage, Umrah, is optional and can be undertaken at any time of the year. Other sites of Islamic pilgrimage are Medina, where Muhammad died, as well as Jerusalem, a city of many Islamic prophets and the site of Al-Aqsa, which was the direction of prayer before Mecca.BOOK, Michigan Consortium for Medieval and Early Modern Studies,weblink The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange Between East and West During the Period of the Crusades, Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1986, 0918720583, Goss, V. P., 21, 208, Bornstein, C. V., 15 January 2023, 28 December 2023,weblink live, Trofimov, Yaroslav. 2008. The Siege of Mecca: The 1979 Uprising at Islam's Holiest Shrine. Knopf. New York. {{ISBN|978-0-307-47290-8}}. p. 79.

Other acts of worship

(File:Men reading the Koran in Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria.jpg|thumb|Muslim men reading the Quran){{Seealso|Quran#Recitation|Dua|Dhikr}}Muslims recite and memorize the whole or parts of the Quran as acts of virtue. Tajwid refers to the set of rules for the proper elocution of the Quran.BOOK, Foundation of Tajweed, 2013, 2, Aboo Yahyaa, 1Stefonp=42–43}} One who has memorized the whole Quran is called a hafiz ("memorizer"), and hadiths mention that these individuals will be able to intercede for others on Judgment Day.{{sfnp2004plainurl=ypage=70}} 70]}}Supplication to God, called in Arabic {{transl|ar|DIN|duʿāʾ}} ( {{IPA-ar|dʊˈʕæːʔ|IPA}}) has its own etiquette such as raising hands as if begging.BOOK, Brill, 9789004335523, The Quṣṣāṣ of Early Islam, Netherlands, 2016, Armstrong, Lyall, 184, {{Listen|filename=112.AlIkhlas-MisharyRashedAlafasy.ogg|title=Al-Ikhlas|pos=leftAl-Ikhlas>Sincerity is the Quran's List of surahs in the Quranth}} chapter as recited by Imam Mishary Rashid Alafasy|format=Ogg}}Remembrance of God () refers to phrases repeated referencing God. Commonly, this includes Tahmid, declaring praise be due to God () during prayer or when feeling thankful, Tasbih, declaring glory to God during prayer or when in awe of something and saying 'in the name of God' (, {{transliteration|ar|ALA-LC|basmalah}}) before starting an act such as eating.WEB, alhamdulillah,weblinkweblink dead, February 27, 2020, 2021-10-16, Lexico,


{{For timeline|Timeline of the history of Islam}}{{See also|List of Muslim empires and dynasties}}{{wide image|Madina Haram at evening.jpg|1000px|align-cap=center|A panoramic view of Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina, Hejaz region, today's Saudi Arabia, the second most sacred Mosque in Islam}}

Muhammad and the birth of Islam (570–632)

{{See also|Early social changes under Islam}}File:Hira_Cave.jpg|thumb|Cave of Hira ]]According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 CE and was orphaned early in life. Growing up as a trader, he became known as the "trusted one" () and was sought after as an impartial arbitrator. He later married his employer, the businesswoman Khadija.{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=6}} In the year 610 CE, troubled by the moral decline and idolatry prevalent in Mecca and seeking seclusion and spiritual contemplation, Muhammad retreated to the Cave of Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour, near Mecca. It was during his time in the cave that he is said to have received the first revelation of the Quran from the angel Gabriel.{{harvc |c=Muhammad |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam Online |year=n.d. |last2=Welch |first2=A.T. |last1=Buhl |first1=F.}} The event of Muhammad's retreat to the cave and subsequent revelation is known as the "Night of Power" (Laylat al-Qadr) and is considered a significant event in Islamic history. During the next 22 years of his life, from age 40 onwards, Muhammad continued to receive revelations from God, becoming the last or seal of the prophets sent to mankind.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Muhammad, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, File:Siyer-i_Nebi_151b.jpg|thumb|"Muhammad at the Ka'ba" from the (Siyer-i Nebi]].WEB, Ottomans : religious painting,weblink 1 May 2016, Muhammad is shown with veiled face, {{Circa|1595}}.)During this time, while in Mecca, Muhammad preached first in secret and then in public, imploring his listeners to abandon polytheism and worship one God. Many early converts to Islam were women, the poor, foreigners, and slaves like the first muezzin Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi.Rabah, Bilal B. Encyclopedia of Islam. The Meccan elite felt Muhammad was destabilizing their social order by preaching about one God and giving questionable ideas to the poor and slaves because they profited from the pilgrimages to the idols of the Kaaba.BOOK, Ãœnal, Ali,weblink The Qurʼan with Annotated Interpretation in Modern English, Tughra Books, 2006, 978-1-59784-000-2, 1323–, 7 October 2017, 28 December 2023,weblink live, {{harvp|Holt|Lambton|Lewis|1977|p=36}}.After 12 years of the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans, Muhammad and his companions performed the Hijra ("emigration") in 622 to the city of Yathrib (current-day Medina). There, with the Medinan converts (the Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (the Muhajirun), Muhammad in Medina established his political and religious authority. The Constitution of Medina was signed by all the tribes of Medina. This established religious freedoms and freedom to use their own laws among the Muslim and non-Muslim communities as well as an agreement to defend Medina from external threats.{{sfnp|Serjeant|1978|p=4}} Meccan forces and their allies lost against the Muslims at the Battle of Badr in 624 and then fought an inconclusive battle in the Battle of Uhud{{Citation |last=Peter Crawford |title=The War of the Three Gods: Romans, Persians and the Rise of Islam |url= |page=83 |publisher=Pen & Sword Books Limited |isbn=9781473828650 |date=2013-07-16 |access-date=5 August 2022 |archive-date=28 December 2023 |archive-url= |url-status=live }}. before unsuccessfully besieging Medina in the Battle of the Trench (March–April 627). In 628, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was signed between Mecca and the Muslims, but it was broken by Mecca two years later. As more tribes converted to Islam, Meccan trade routes were cut off by the Muslims.{{harvp|Peters|2003|pp=78–79, 194}}{{harvp|Lapidus|2002|pp=23–28}} By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 (at age 62) he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single religious polity.{{harvc|c=Muhammad |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam Online |year=n.d. |last2=Welch |first2=A.T. |last1=Buhl |first1=F.}}

Early Islamic period (632–750)

{{Further|Succession to Muhammad|Early Muslim conquests}}{{See also|Event of Ghadir Khumm|Saqifa}}File:Mohammad adil-Rashidun empire-slide.gif|thumb|right|Expansion of Rashidun CaliphateRashidun CaliphateFile:Dome of the Rock1.jpg|thumb|Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second FitnaSecond FitnaMuhammad died in 632 and the first successors, called Caliphs – Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn al-Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib and sometimes Hasan ibn AliBOOK, Melchert, Christopher, 2020, The Rightly Guided Caliphs: The Range of Views Preserved in ḤadÄ«th, al-Sarhan, Saud, Political Quietism in Islam: Sunni and Shi'i Practice and Thought, London and New York, I.B. Tauris, 978-1-83860-765-4, 70–71,weblink 17 February 2022, 28 December 2023,weblink live, – are known in Sunni Islam as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidÅ«n ("Rightly Guided Caliphs").{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=40}} Some tribes left Islam and rebelled under leaders who declared themselves new prophets but were crushed by Abu Bakr in the Ridda wars.{{harvp|Holt|Lewis|1977|p=57}}{{harvp|Hourani|2002|p=22}}{{harvp|Lapidus|2002|p=32}}{{harvp|Madelung|1996|p=43}}{{harvp|Ṭabāṭabāʼī|1979|pp=30–50}} Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and heretics and taxed heavily, often helped Muslims take over their lands,{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=38}} resulting in rapid expansion of the caliphate into the Persian and Byzantine empires.{{harvp|Holt|Lewis|1977|p=74}}{{harvp|Gardet|Jomier|2012}}BOOK, J. Kuiper, Matthew, Da'wa: A Global History of Islamic Missionary Thought and Practice, Edinburgh University Press, 2021, 9781351510721, 85, BOOK, Lapidus, Ira M., A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2014, 978-0-521-51430-9, 60–61, Ira M. Lapidus, Uthman was elected in 644 and his assassination by rebels led to Ali being elected the next Caliph. In the First Civil War, Muhammad's widow, Aisha, raised an army against Ali, attempting to avenge the death of Uthman, but was defeated at the Battle of the Camel. Ali attempted to remove the governor of Syria, Mu'awiya, who was seen as corrupt. Mu'awiya then declared war on Ali and was defeated in the Battle of Siffin. Ali's decision to arbitrate angered the Kharijites, an extremist sect, who felt that by not fighting a sinner, Ali became a sinner as well. The Kharijites rebelled and were defeated in the Battle of Nahrawan but a Kharijite assassin later killed Ali. Ali's son, Hasan ibn Ali, was elected Caliph and signed a peace treaty to avoid further fighting, abdicating to Mu'awiya in return for Mu'awiya not appointing a successor.{{sfnp|Holt|Lewis|1977|pp=67–72}} Mu'awiya began the Umayyad dynasty with the appointment of his son Yazid I as successor, sparking the Second Civil War. During the Battle of Karbala, Husayn ibn Ali was killed by Yazid's forces; the event has been annually commemorated by Shias ever since. Sunnis, led by Ibn al-Zubayr and opposed to a dynastic caliphate, were defeated in the siege of Mecca. These disputes over leadership would give rise to the Sunni-Shia schism,NEWS, Harney, John, 3 January 2016, How Do Sunni and Shia Islam Differ?, The New York Times,weblink 4 January 2016, 11 May 2020,weblink live, with the Shia believing leadership belongs to Muhammad's family through Ali, called the ahl al-bayt.{{sfnp|Waines|2003|p=46}}Abu Bakr's leadership oversaw the beginning of the compilation of the Quran. The Caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz set up the committee, The Seven Fuqaha of Medina,{{sfnp|Ismāʻīl ibn Ê»Umar Ibn KathÄ«r|2012|p=505}}Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz By Imam Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam died 214 AH 829 C.E. Publisher Zam Zam Publishers Karachi, pp. 54–59 and Malik ibn Anas wrote one of the earliest books on Islamic jurisprudence, the Muwatta, as a consensus of the opinion of those jurists.BOOK, Noel James Coulson, History of Islamic Law, 1964, 978-0-7486-0514-9, 103, King Abdulaziz Public Library,weblink 7 October 2014, 28 December 2023,weblink live, BOOK, Houtsma, M.T., Wensinck, A.J., Lévi-Provençal, E., Gibb, H.A.R., Heffening, W., Volume V: L—Moriscos, E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Brill Publishers, 1993, reprint, 978-90-04-09791-9,weblink 207–, 19 September 2021, 28 December 2023,weblink live, BOOK, Moshe Sharon, Studies in Islamic History and Civilization: In Honour of Professor David Ayalon, 1986, BRILL, 9789652640147, 264,weblink 20 June 2015, 28 December 2023,weblink live, The Kharijites believed there was no compromised middle ground between good and evil, and any Muslim who committed a grave sin would become an unbeliever. The term "kharijites" would also be used to refer to later groups such as Isis.NEWS, Mamouri, Ali, 8 January 2015, Who are the Kharijites and what do they have to do with IS?, Al-monitor,weblink 6 March 2022, 6 March 2022,weblink live, The Murji'ah taught that people's righteousness could be judged by God alone. Therefore, wrongdoers might be considered misguided, but not denounced as unbelievers.{{sfnp|Blankinship|2008|p=43}} This attitude came to prevail into mainstream Islamic beliefs.{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=87}}The Umayyad dynasty conquered the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Narbonnese Gaul and Sindh.BOOK, Donald, Puchala, Theory and History in International Relations, 137, Routledge, 2003, The Umayyads struggled with a lack of legitimacy and relied on a heavily patronized military.{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=45}} Since the jizya tax was a tax paid by non-Muslims which exempted them from military service, the Umayyads denied recognizing the conversion of non-Arabs, as it reduced revenue.{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=87}} While the Rashidun Caliphate emphasized austerity, with Umar even requiring an inventory of each official's possessions,BOOK, Ahmad Ibn Jabir, Al-Biladhuri, Philip, Hitti, Kitab Futuhu'l-Buldan, 219, AMS Press, 1969, Umayyad luxury bred dissatisfaction among the pious.{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=87}} The Kharijites led the Berber Revolt, leading to the first Muslim states independent of the Caliphate. In the Abbasid Revolution, non-Arab converts (mawali), Arab clans pushed aside by the Umayyad clan, and some Shi'a rallied and overthrew the Umayyads, inaugurating the more cosmopolitan Abbasid dynasty in 750.{{sfnp|Lapidus|2002|p=56}}{{sfnp|Lewis|1993|pp=71–83}}

Classical era (750–1258)

{{Further|Hadith studies|Islamic philosophy}}{{See also|Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe|Turco-Persian tradition}}Al-Shafi'i codified a method to determine the reliability of hadith.{{sfnp|Lapidus|2002|p=86}} During the early Abbasid era, scholars such as Muhammad al-Bukhari and Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj compiled the major Sunni hadith collections while scholars like Al-Kulayni and Ibn Babawayh compiled major Shia hadith collections. The four Sunni Madh'habs, the Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki, and Shafi'i, were established around the teachings of Abū Ḥanīfa, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas and al-Shafi'i. In contrast, the teachings of Ja'far al-Sadiq formed the Ja'fari jurisprudence. In the 9th century, Al-Tabari completed the first commentary of the Quran, the Tafsir al-Tabari, which became one of the most cited commentaries in Sunni Islam. Some Muslims began questioning the piety of indulgence in worldly life and emphasized poverty, humility, and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Ascetics such as Hasan al-Basri inspired a movement that would evolve into tasawwuf or Sufism.{{sfnp|Lapidus|2002|pp=90, 91}}At this time, theological problems, notably on free will, were prominently tackled, with Hasan al Basri holding that although God knows people's actions, good and evil come from abuse of free will and the devil.{{sfnp|Blankinship|2008|pp=38-39}}{{efn|"Hasan al Basri is often considered one of the first who rejected an angelic origin for the devil, arguing that his fall was the result of his own free-will, not God's determination. Hasan al Basri also argued that angels are incapable of sin or errors and nobler than humans and even prophets. Both early Shias and Sunnis opposed his view.Omar Hamdan Studien zur Kanonisierung des Korantextes: al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrīs Beiträge zur Geschichte des Korans Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2006 {{ISBN|978-3447053495}} pp. 291–292 (German)}} Greek rationalist philosophy influenced a speculative school of thought known as Muʿtazila, who famously advocated the notion of free-will originated by Wasil ibn Ata.{{sfnp|Blankinship|2008|p=50}} Caliph Mamun al Rashid made it an official creed and unsuccessfully attempted to force this position on the majority.{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=88}} Caliph Al-Mu'tasim carried out inquisitions, with the traditionalist Ahmad ibn Hanbal notably refusing to conform to the Muʿtazila idea that the Quran was created rather than being eternal, which resulted in him being tortured and kept in an unlit prison cell for nearly thirty months.BOOK, Doi, Abdur Rahman, Shariah: The Islamic Law, London, Ta-Ha Publishers, 1984, 978-0-907461-38-8, 110, However, other schools of speculative theology – Māturīdism founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi and Ash'ari founded by Al-Ash'ari – were more successful in being widely adopted. Philosophers such as Al-Farabi, Avicenna and Averroes sought to harmonize Aristotle's ideas with the teachings of Islam, similar to later scholasticism within Christianity in Europe and Maimonides' work within Judaism, while others like Al-Ghazali argued against such syncretism and ultimately prevailed.{{harvp|Lapidus|2002|p=160}}{{harvp|Waines|2003|pp=126–127}}File:Cheshm manuscript.jpg|thumb|The eye, according to Hunain ibn IshaqHunain ibn IshaqThis era is sometimes called the "Islamic Golden Age".{{harvp|Holt|Lewis|1977|pp=80, 92, 105}}{{harvp|Holt|Lambton|Lewis|1977|pp=661–663}}{{harvp|Lapidus|2002|p=56}}{{harvp|Lewis|1993|p=84}} Islamic scientific achievements spanned a wide range of subject areas including medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and agriculture as well as physics, economics, engineering and optics.JOURNAL, King, David A., 1983, The Astronomy of the Mamluks, Isis (journal), Isis, 74, 4, 531–55, 10.1086/353360, 144315162, Hassan, Ahmad Y. 1996. "weblink" title="">Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century." Pp. 351–99 in Islam and the Challenge of Modernity, edited by S. S. Al-Attas. Kuala Lumpur: International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.WEB,weblink Contributions of Islamic scholars to the scientific enterprise, 13 December 2022, 23 May 2023,weblink live, WEB, The greatest scientific advances from the Muslim world,, February 2010,weblink 13 December 2022, 13 December 2022,weblink live, Avicenna was a pioneer in experimental medicine,Jacquart, Danielle (2008). "Islamic Pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Theories and Substances". European Review (Cambridge University Press) 16: 219–227.David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2). and his The Canon of Medicine was used as a standard medicinal text in the Islamic world and Europe for centuries. Rhazes was the first to identify the diseases smallpox and measles.WEB,weblink Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes) (c. 865-925),, 31 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 6 May 2015, dead, Public hospitals of the time issued the first medical diplomas to license doctors.JOURNAL, Alatas, Syed Farid, 2006, From Jami'ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue,weblink Current Sociology, 54, 1, 112–132, 10.1177/0011392106058837, 144509355, 12 September 2019, 23 September 2017,weblink live, BOOK, Imamuddin, S.M., Muslim Spain 711–1492 AD, Brill Publishers, 1981, 978-90-04-06131-6, 169, Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the father of the modern scientific method and often referred to as the "world's first true scientist", in particular regarding his work in optics.JOURNAL, Gerald J. Toomer, G. J., Toomer, 228328, Review Work: Matthias Schramm (1963) Ibn Al-Haythams Weg zur Physik, Isis, 55, 4, Dec 1964, 464, Schramm sums up [Ibn Al-Haytham's] achievement in the development of scientific method., NEWS, Al-Khalili, Jim, 4 January 2009, The 'first true scientist', BBC News,weblink 24 September 2013, 26 April 2015,weblink" title="">weblink live, JOURNAL, Gorini, Rosanna, October 2003, Al-Haytham the man of experience. First steps in the science of vision, Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2, 4, 53–55,weblink 25 September 2008, 17 July 2019,weblink" title="">weblink live, In engineering, the Banū Mūsā brothers' automatic flute player is considered to have been the first programmable machine.JOURNAL, Koetsier, Teun, On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators, Mechanism and Machine Theory, May 2001, 36, 5, 589–603, 10.1016/S0094-114X(01)00005-2, In mathematics, the concept of the algorithm is named after Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, who is considered a founder of algebra, which is named after his book al-jabr, while others developed the concept of a function.JOURNAL, Katz, Victor J., Barton, Bill, Stages in the History of Algebra with Implications for Teaching, Educational Studies in Mathematics, 18 September 2007, 66, 2, 185–201, 10.1007/s10649-006-9023-7, 120363574, The government paid scientists the equivalent salary of professional athletes today.{{harvp|Ahmed|2006|pp=23, 42, 84}} Guinness World Records recognizes the University of Al Karaouine, founded in 859, as the world's oldest degree-granting university.BOOK, Young, Mark,weblink The Guinness Book of Records, 1998, 242, Bantam, 978-0-553-57895-9, Many non-Muslims, such as Christians, Jews and Sabians, contributed to the Islamic civilization in various fields,Hill, Donald. Islamic Science and Engineering. 1993. Edinburgh Univ. Press. {{ISBN|0-7486-0455-3}}, p.4Rémi Brague, Assyrians contributions to the Islamic civilization {{Webarchive|url= |date=2013-09-27 }} and the institution known as the House of Wisdom employed Christian and Persian scholars to both translate works into Arabic and to develop new knowledge.Meri, Josef W. and Jere L. Bacharach. "Medieval Islamic Civilization". Vol. 1 Index A–K {{Webarchive|url= |date=28 December 2023 }}. 2006, p. 304.BOOK, The Legend of the Middle Ages: Philosophical Explorations of Medieval Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, Rémi, Brague, 2009, 9780226070803, 164, University of Chicago Press, Neither were there any Muslims among the Ninth-Century translators. Amost all of them were Christians of various Eastern denominations: Jacobites, Melchites, and, above all, Nestorians... A few others were Sabians., Saliba, George. 1994. A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam. New York: New York University Press. {{ISBN|0-8147-8023-7}}. pp. 245, 250, 256–57.Soldiers broke away from the Abbasid empire and established their own dynasties, such as the Tulunids in 868 in EgyptBOOK, Holt, Peter Malcolm, Peter Holt (historian), The Crusader States and Their Neighbours, 1098–1291,weblink 2004, Pearson Longman, 978-0-582-36931-3, 6, 2 February 2023, 28 December 2023,weblink live, and the Ghaznavid dynasty in 977 in Central Asia.BOOK, Islamic Central Asia: an anthology of historical sources, Scott Cameron, Levi, Ron, Sela, Indiana University Press, 2010, 83, In this fragmentation came the Shi'a Century, roughly between 945 and 1055, which saw the rise of the millennialist Isma'ili Shi'a missionary movement. One Isma'ili group, the Fatimid dynasty, took control of North Africa in the 10th centuryNeue Fischer Weltgeschichte "Islamisierung in Zentralasien bis zur Mongolenzeit" Band 10: Zentralasien, 2012, p. 191 (German) and another Isma'ili group, the Qarmatians, sacked Mecca and stole the Black Stone, a rock placed within the Kaaba, in their unsuccessful rebellion.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Glubb, John Bagot, Mecca (Saudi Arabia), Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink 18 September 2021, subscription, 6 May 2020,weblink live, Yet another Isma'ili group, the Buyid dynasty, conquered Baghdad and turned the Abbasids into a figurehead monarchy. The Sunni Seljuk dynasty campaigned to reassert Sunni Islam by promulgating the scholarly opinions of the time, notably with the construction of educational institutions known as Nezamiyeh, which are associated with Al-Ghazali and Saadi Shirazi.Andreas Graeser Zenon von Kition: Positionen u. Probleme Walter de Gruyter 1975 {{ISBN|978-3-11-004673-1}} p. 260The expansion of the Muslim world continued with religious missions converting Volga Bulgaria to Islam. The Delhi Sultanate reached deep into the Indian Subcontinent and many converted to Islam,{{sfnp|Arnold|1896|pp=227–228}} in particular low-caste Hindus whose descendants make up the vast majority of Indian Muslims.WEB,weblink Why are many Indian Muslims seen as untouchable?, BBCnews, 10 May 2016, 6 October 2022, 7 October 2022,weblink live, Trade brought many Muslims to China, where they virtually dominated the import and export industry of the Song dynasty.WEB, Islam in China,weblink 10 August 2011, BBC, 22 November 2018,weblink" title="">weblink live, Muslims were recruited as a governing minority class in the Yuan dynasty.BOOK, Lipman, Jonathan Newman, Familiar Strangers, a history of Muslims in Northwest China, Seattle, WA, University of Washington Press, 1997, 978-0-295-97644-0, 33,

Pre-Modern era (1258–18th century)

{{Further|Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam}}File:GhazanConversionToIslam.JPG|thumb|right|Ghazan Khan, 7{{sup|th}} Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol EmpireMongol EmpireThrough Muslim trade networks and the activity of Sufi orders,{{sfnp|Arnold|1896|pp=125–258}} Islam spread into new areasWEB, The Spread of Islam,weblink 2 November 2013, 3 November 2013,weblink" title="">weblink live, and Muslims assimilated into new cultures. Under the Ottoman Empire, Islam spread to Southeast Europe.WEB, 6 May 2008, Ottoman Empire, Oxford Islamic Studies Online,weblink 26 August 2010, 10 June 2022,weblink" title="">weblink dead, Conversion to Islam often involved a degree of syncretism,BOOK, Islamic and European Expansion, Temple University Press, 1993, Adas, Michael, Philadelphia, 25, as illustrated by Muhammad's appearance in Hindu folklore.BOOK, Metcalf, Barbara, Islam in South Asia in Practice, Princeton University Press, 2009, 104, Muslim Turks incorporated elements of Turkish Shamanism beliefs to Islam.{{efn|"In recent years, the idea of syncretism has been challenged. Given the lack of authority to define or enforce an Orthodox doctrine about Islam, some scholars argue there had no prescribed beliefs, only prescribed practise, in Islam before the 16th century.{{sfnp|Peacock|2019|p=20–22}}}}{{sfnp|Çakmak|2017|pp=1425–1429}} Muslims in Ming Dynasty China who were descended from earlier immigrants were assimilated, sometimes through laws mandating assimilation,BOOK, Farmer, Edward L., Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule, 1995, BRILL, 9004103910, 82,weblink 19 February 2023, 28 December 2023,weblink live, by adopting Chinese names and culture while Nanjing became an important center of Islamic study.Israeli, Raphael (2002). Islam in China. p. 292. Lexington Books. {{ISBN|0-7391-0375-X}}.BOOK, Dillon, Michael, 1999, China's Muslim Hui Community, Curzon,weblink 978-0-7007-1026-3, 37, registration, Cultural shifts were evident with the decrease in Arab influence after the Mongol destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate.{{harvp|Bulliet|2005|p=497}} The Muslim Mongol Khanates in Iran and Central Asia benefited from increased cross-cultural access to East Asia under Mongol rule and thus flourished and developed more distinctively from Arab influence, such as the Timurid Renaissance under the Timurid dynasty.JOURNAL, Subtelny, Maria Eva, November 1988, Socioeconomic Bases of Cultural Patronage under the Later Timurids,weblink International Journal of Middle East Studies, 20, 4, 479–505, 10.1017/S0020743800053861, 162411014, 7 November 2016, 13 August 2020,weblink live, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) proposed the mathematical model that was later argued to be adopted by Copernicus unrevised in his heliocentric model,WEB, 1999, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, University of St Andrews,weblink 27 August 2023, 6 October 2018,weblink" title="">weblink live, and JamshÄ«d al-KāshÄ«'s estimate of pi would not be surpassed for 180 years.WEB, 1999, Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid Mas'ud al-Kashi, University of St Andrews,weblink 29 December 2021, 4 January 2022,weblink live, After the introduction of gunpowder weapons, large and centralized Muslim states consolidated around gunpowder empires, these had been previously splintered amongst various territories. The caliphate was claimed by the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire and its claims were strengthened in 1517 as Selim I became the ruler of Mecca and Medina.BOOK, Drews, Robert,weblink Coursebook: Judaism, Christianity and Islam, to the Beginnings of Modern Civilization, August 2011, Vanderbilt University, Chapter Thirty – "The Ottoman Empire, Judaism, and Eastern Europe to 1648",weblink 21 April 2020, 26 December 2022,weblink live, The Shia Safavid dynasty rose to power in 1501 and later conquered all of Iran.Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples; In: Osman Karatay, Ankara 2002, p. 321 In South Asia, Babur founded the Mughal Empire.{{citation|last=Gilbert|first=Marc Jason|title=South Asia in World History|url=|year=2017|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-066137-3|pages=75|access-date=15 January 2023|archive-date=22 September 2023|archive-url=|url-status=live}}The religion of the centralized states of the gunpowder empires influenced the religious practice of their constituent populations. A symbiosis between Ottoman rulers and Sufism strongly influenced Islamic reign by the Ottomans from the beginning. The Mevlevi Order and Bektashi Order had a close relation to the sultans,Ga ́bor A ́goston, Bruce Alan Masters Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire Infobase Publishing 2010 {{ISBN|978-1-4381-1025-7}} p. 540 as Sufi-mystical as well as heterodox and syncretic approaches to Islam flourished.BOOK, Algar, Ayla Esen,weblink The Dervish Lodge: Architecture, Art, and Sufism in Ottoman Turkey, 15, 1 January 1992, University of California Press, 978-0-520-07060-8, 29 April 2020, Google Books, 28 December 2023,weblink live, The often forceful Safavid conversion of Iran to the Twelver Shia Islam of the Safavid Empire ensured the final dominance of the Twelver sect within Shia Islam. Persian migrants to South Asia, as influential bureaucrats and landholders, help spread Shia Islam, forming some of the largest Shia populations outside Iran.WEB,weblink CONVERSION To Imami ShiÊ¿ism in India, Iranica Online, English, 6 October 2022, 7 October 2022,weblink live, Nader Shah, who overthrew the Safavids, attempted to improve relations with Sunnis by propagating the integration of Twelverism into Sunni Islam as a fifth madhhab, called Ja'farism,JOURNAL, Nadir Shah and the Ja 'fari Madhhab Reconsidered, Ernest, Tucker, Iranian Studies, 27, 1–4, 1994, 163–179, 10.1080/00210869408701825, 4310891, which failed to gain recognition from the Ottomans.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Nāder Shāh, Encyclopædia Iranica,weblink 29 March 2006, Ernest, Tucker, 9 March 2021, 25 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink live,

Modern era (18th–20th centuries)

File:Portrait Caliph Abdulmecid II.jpg|thumb|right|Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynastyOttoman dynastyEarlier in the 14th century, Ibn Taymiyya promoted a puritanical form of Islam,Mary Hawkesworth, Maurice Kogan Encyclopedia of Government and Politics: 2-volume set Routledge 2013 {{ISBN|978-1-136-91332-7}} pp. 270–271 rejecting philosophical approaches in favor of simpler theology, and called to open the gates of itjihad rather than blind imitation of scholars.{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=150}} He called for a jihad against those he deemed heretics,Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 {{ISBN|978-0-7103-1356-0}} p. 6 but his writings only played a marginal role during his lifetime.BOOK, Spevack, Aaron,weblink The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of al-Bajuri, 2014, SUNY Press, 978-1-4384-5371-2, 129–130, 10 December 2018, 28 December 2023,weblink live, During the 18th century in Arabia, Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, influenced by the works of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim, founded a movement called Wahhabi to return to what he saw as unadultered Islam.Donald Quataert The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922 Cambridge University Press 2005 {{ISBN|978-0-521-83910-5}} p. 50Ga ́bor A ́goston, Bruce Alan Masters Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire Infobase Publishing 2010 {{ISBN|978-1-4381-1025-7}} p. 260 He condemned many local Islamic customs, such as visiting the grave of Muhammad or saints, as later innovations and sinfulTHESIS, The Emergence of a Scholar from a Garrison Society: A contextual analysis of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhāb's doctrine in the light of the Qur'ān and HadÄ«th,weblink University of Wales Trinity Saint David, 2022-08-23, masters, en, Shahajada Md, Musa, 19 December 2023, 2 May 2023,weblink live, and destroyed sacred rocks and trees, Sufi shrines, the tombs of Muhammad and his companions and the tomb of Husayn at Karbala, a major Shia pilgrimage site.NEWS, 4 September 2013, Graves desecrated in Mizdah, Libya Herald,weblink 2 November 2013, 3 November 2013,weblink" title="">weblink live, {{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=146}} He formed an alliance with the Saud family, which, by the 1920s, completed their conquest of the area that would become Saudi Arabia.Nicolas Laos The Metaphysics of World Order: A Synthesis of Philosophy, Theology, and Politics Wipf and Stock Publishers 2015 {{ISBN|978-1-4982-0102-5}} p. 177 Ma Wanfu and Ma Debao promoted salafist movements in the 19th century such as Sailaifengye in China after returning from Mecca but were eventually persecuted and forced into hiding by Sufi groups.BOOK, Barry M., Rubin,weblink 79, Guide to Islamist Movements, 2000, M.E. Sharpe, 0-7656-1747-1, 28 June 2010, 28 December 2023,weblink live, Other groups sought to reform Sufism rather than reject it, with the Senusiyya and Muhammad Ahmad both waging war and establishing states in Libya and Sudan respectively.{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=147}} In India, Shah Waliullah Dehlawi attempted a more conciliatory style against Sufism and influenced the Deobandi movement.{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=149}} In response to the Deobandi movement, the Barelwi movement was founded as a mass movement, defending popular Sufism and reforming its practices.BOOK, Robert L. Canfield,weblink Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, 2002, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-52291-5, 131–, 1 December 2018, 28 December 2023,weblink live, JOURNAL, Sanyal, Usha, 23 July 1998, Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the twentieth Century,weblink Modern Asian Studies, 32, 3, 635–656, 10.1017/S0026749X98003059, Cambridge Core, 23 February 2020, 17 March 2020,weblink live, The Muslim world was generally in political decline starting the 1800s, especially compared to non-Muslim European powers. Earlier, in the 15th century, the Reconquista succeeded in ending the Muslim presence in Iberia. By the 19th century, the British East India Company had formally annexed the Mughal dynasty in India.{{sfnp|Lapidus|2002|pp=358, 378–380, 624}} As a response to Western Imperialism, many intellectuals sought to reform Islam.JOURNAL, Buzpinar, Åž. Tufan, March 2007, Celal Nuri's Concepts of Westernization and Religion, Middle Eastern Studies, 43, 2, 247–258, 10.1080/00263200601114091, 4284539, 144461915, Islamic modernism, initially labelled by Western scholars as Salafiyya, embraced modern values and institutions such as democracy while being scripture oriented. Notable forerunners in the movement include Muhammad 'Abduh and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani.BOOK, Lauziere, Henri, The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century, Columbia University Press, 2016, 978-0-231-17550-0, New York, Chichester, West Sussex, 231–232, "Beginning with Louis Massignon in 1919, it is true that Westerners played a leading role in labeling Islamic modernists as Salafis, even though the term was a misnomer. At the time, European and American scholars felt the need for a useful conceptual box to place Muslim figures such as Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh, and their epigones, all of whom seemed inclined toward a scripturalist understanding of Islam but proved open to rationalism and Western modernity. They chose to adopt salafiyya—a technical term of theology, which they mistook for a reformist slogan and wrongly associated with all kinds of modernist Muslim intellectuals.", Abul A'la Maududi helped influence modern political Islam.NEWS, 3 January 2014, Political Islam: A movement in motion, Economist Magazine,weblink 1 January 2014, 4 January 2014,weblink" title="">weblink live, BOOK, Smith, Wilfred Cantwell, Islam in Modern History, Princeton University Press, 1957, 0-691-03030-8, 233, Wilfred Cantwell Smith, Similar to contemporary codification, sharia was for the first time partially codified into law in 1869 in the Ottoman Empire's Mecelle code.WEB, John Esposito, Esposito, John L., Mecelle, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam,weblink subscription, Oxford Islamic Studies Online, 17 August 2023, 17 August 2023,weblink live, The Ottoman Empire disintegrated after World War I, the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished in 1924NEWS, 29 June – 5 July 2000, New Turkey, Al-Ahram Weekly, 488,weblink dead, 16 May 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 4 October 2010, and the subsequent Sharifian Caliphate fell quickly,WEB, الوطن, جريدة, webmaster, 2020-05-05, «مملكة الحجاز».. وقــصـــة الـغــزو المـســلّـــح,weblink 2023-12-19, جريدة الوطن, ar, 16 May 2023,weblink live, JOURNAL, Bani Issa, Mohammad Saleh, 2023-11-01, Factors of stability and sustainable development in Jordan in its first centenary 1921–2021 (an analytical descriptive study), Heliyon, 9, 11, e20993, 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e20993, 2405-8440, free, 37928029, 10623165, 2023Heliy...920993B, BOOK, والخلفاء, قصص الخلافة الإسلامية,weblink قصص الخلافة الإسلامية والخلفاء, 2023-03-31, Austin Macauley Publishers, 978-1-3984-9251-6, en, 26 December 2023, 28 December 2023,weblink live, thus leaving Islam without a Caliph. Pan-Islamists attempted to unify Muslims and competed with growing nationalist forces, such as pan-Arabism.BOOK, Doran, Michael, Pan-Arabism before Nasser: Egyptian power politics and the Palestine question, 1999, Oxford university press, 978-0-19-512361-6, Studies in Middle Eastern history, New York Oxford, BOOK, Landau, YaÊ¿aqov M., The politics of Pan-Islam: ideology and organization, 1994, Clarendon Press, 978-0-19-827709-5, [Rev. and updated] paperback (with additions and corr.), Oxford, The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), consisting of Muslim-majority countries, was established in 1969 after the burning of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.NEWS, 26 December 2010, Organization of the Islamic Conference, BBC News,weblink 24 September 2013, 28 June 2018,weblink" title="">weblink live, Contact with industrialized nations brought Muslim populations to new areas through economic migration. Many Muslims migrated as indentured servants (mostly from India and Indonesia) to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas.{{sfnp|Haddad|Smith|2002|p=271}} Migration from Syria and Lebanon contributed to the Muslim population in Latin America.BOOK, Zabel, Darcy, Arabs in the Americas: Interdisciplinary Essays on the Arab Diaspora, Peter Lang, 2006, 9780820481111, Austria, 5, The resulting urbanization and increase in trade in sub-Saharan Africa brought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith,REPORT,weblink The Future of the Global Muslim Population, 27 January 2011, Pew Research Center, 27 December 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2011, live, likely doubling its Muslim population between 1869 and 1914.{{harvp|Bulliet|2005|p=722}}

Contemporary era (20th century–present)

File:13. Session of the Islamic Summit Conference.jpg|thumb|right|Leaders of Muslim countries during session of the Islamic Summit ConferenceIslamic Summit ConferenceForerunners of Islamic modernism influenced Islamist political movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood and related parties in the Arab world,NEWS, 9 August 2011, Are secular forces being squeezed out of Arab Spring?, BBC News,weblink 10 August 2011, 4 November 2022,weblink live, NEWS, Slackman, Michael, 23 December 2008, Jordanian students rebel, embracing conservative Islam, New York Times,weblink 15 August 2011, 4 November 2022,weblink live, which performed well in elections following the Arab Spring,NEWS, Kirkpatrick, David D., 3 December 2011, Egypt's vote puts emphasis on split over religious rule, The New York Times,weblink 8 December 2011, 4 November 2022,weblink live, Jamaat-e-Islami in South Asia and the AK Party, which has democratically been in power in Turkey for decades. In Iran, revolution replaced a secular monarchy with an Islamic state. Others such as Sayyid Rashid Rida broke away from Islamic modernistsBOOK, Lauziere, Henri, The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century, Columbia University Press, 2016, 978-0-231-17550-0, New York, Chichester, West Sussex, 237, "Prior to the fall of the Ottoman Empire, leading reformers who happened to be Salafi in creed were surprisingly open-minded: although they adhered to neo-Hanbali theology. However, the aftermath of the First World War and the expansion of European colonialism paved the way for a series of shifts in thought and attitude. The experiences of Rida offer many examples... he turned against the Shi'is who dared, with reason, to express doubts about the Saudi-Wahhabi project... . Shi'is were not the only victims: Rida and his associates showed their readiness to turn against fellow Salafis who questioned some of the Wahhabis' religious interpretations.", and pushed against embracing what he saw as Western influence.BOOK, G. Rabil, Robert, Salafism in Lebanon: From Apoliticism to Transnational Jihadism, Georgetown University Press, 2014, 978-1-62616-116-0, Washington DC, US, 32–33, "Western colonialists established in these countries political orders... that, even though not professing enmity to Islam and its institutions, left no role for Islam in society. This caused a crisis among Muslim reformists, who felt betrayed not only by the West but also by those nationalists, many of whom were brought to power by the West... Nothing reflects this crisis more than the ideological transformation of Rashid Rida (1865–1935)... He also revived the works of Ibn Taymiyah by publishing his writings and promoting his ideas. Subsequently, taking note of the cataclysmic events brought about by Western policies in the Muslim world and shocked by the abolition of the caliphate, he transformed into a Muslim intellectual mostly concerned about protecting Muslim culture, identity, and politics from Western influence. He supported a theory that essentially emphasized the necessity of an Islamic state in which the scholars of Islam would have a leading role... Rida was a forerunner of Islamist thought. He apparently intended to provide a theoretical platform for a modern Islamic state. His ideas were later incorporated into the works of Islamic scholars. Significantly, his ideas influenced none other than Hassan al-Bannah, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt... The Muslim Brethren have taken up Rida's Islamic fundamentalism, a right-wing radical movement founded in 1928,..", The group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant would even attempt to recreate the modern gold dinar as their monetary system. While some of those who broke away were quietist, others believed in violence against those opposing them, even against other Muslims.NEWS,weblink Isis to mint own Islamic dinar coins in gold, silver and copper, The Guardian, 21 November 2014, 31 July 2022, 4 November 2022,weblink live, In opposition to Islamic political movements, in 20th century Turkey, the military carried out coups to oust Islamist governments, and headscarves were legally restricted, as also happened in Tunisia.NEWS, 29 April 2011, Huge rally for Turkish secularism, BBC News,weblink 6 December 2011, 29 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink live, NEWS, Saleh, Heba, 15 October 2011, Tunisia moves against headscarves, BBC News,weblink 6 December 2011, 29 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink live, In other places, religious authority was co-opted and is now often seen as puppets of the state. For example, in Saudi Arabia, the state monopolized religious scholarshipNEWS, 28 June 2007, Laying down the law: Islam's authority deficit, The Economist,weblink 15 August 2011, 6 March 2016,weblink" title="">weblink live, and, in Egypt, the state nationalized Al-Azhar University, previously an independent voice checking state power.BOOK, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, Bowering, Gerhard, Mirza, Mahan, Crone, Patricia, 2013, Princeton University Press, 59, 9780691134840, Salafism was funded in the Middle East for its quietism.WEB, 18 October 2008, Ultraconservative Islam on rise in Mideast,weblink 24 September 2013, MSNBC, 4 November 2013,weblink" title="">weblink live, Saudi Arabia campaigned against revolutionary Islamist movements in the Middle East, in opposition to Iran.NEWS, Almukhtar, Sarah, Peçanha, Sergio, Wallace, Tim, 5 January 2016, Behind Stark Political Divisions, a More Complex Map of Sunnis and Shiites, The New York Times,weblink 6 January 2016, 4 November 2022,weblink live, Muslim minorities of various ethnicities have been persecuted as a religious group.WEB, Thames, Knox, Why the Persecution of Muslims Should Be on Biden's Agenda,weblink Foreign Policy Magazine, 6 January 2021, English, 5 February 2022, 11 February 2022,weblink live, This has been undertaken by communist forces like the Khmer Rouge, who viewed them as their primary enemy to be exterminated since their religious practice made them stand out from the rest of the population,MAGAZINE, Perrin, Andrew, 10 October 2003, Weakness in numbers, Time (magazine), Time,weblink 24 September 2013, subscription, 24 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink live, the Chinese Communist Party in XinjiangWEB, Beydoun, Khaled A., For China, Islam is a 'mental illness' that needs to be 'cured',weblink Al Jazeera English, Al Jazeera, English, 5 February 2022,weblink 10 December 2018, live, and by nationalist forces such as during the Bosnian genocide.BOOK, Mojzes, Paul, Balkan Genocides: Holocaust and Ethnic Cleansing in the Twentieth Century, Rowman & Littlefield, 2011, 978-1-4422-0663-2, 178, Myanmar military's Tatmadaw targeting of Rohingya Muslims has been labeled as a crime against humanity by the UN and Amnesty International,NEWS, Oliver Holmes, 19 December 2016, Myanmar's Rohingya campaign 'may be crime against humanity', The Guardian,weblink live, 5 January 2017,weblink 6 January 2017, WEB, 19 December 2016, Rohingya abuse may be crimes against humanity: Amnesty, Al Jazeera,weblink 2023-02-21, 22 September 2023,weblink live, while the OHCHR Fact-Finding Mission identified genocide, ethnic cleansing, and other crimes against humanity.WEB,weblink Report of Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar, 27 August 2018,, 14 August 2019,weblink 19 October 2018, live, The advancement of global communication has facilitated the widespread dissemination of religious knowledge. The adoption of the hijab has grown more commonNEWS, Slackman, Michael, 28 January 2007, In Egypt, a new battle begins over the veil, The New York Times,weblink 15 August 2011, 3 May 2019,weblink live, and some Muslim intellectuals are increasingly striving to separate scriptural Islamic beliefs from cultural traditions.{{sfnp|Nigosian|2004|p=41}} Among other groups, this access to information has led to the rise of popular "televangelist" preachers, such as Amr Khaled, who compete with the traditional ulema in their reach and have decentralized religious authority.NEWS, Islamic televangelist; holy smoke, The Economist,weblink 5 February 2022, 4 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink live, {{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=263}} More "individualized" interpretations of IslamV. Šisler: The Internet and the Construction of Islamic Knowledge in Europe p. 212 notably involve Liberal Muslims who attempt to align religious traditions with contemporary secular governance,{{sfnp|Esposito|2004|pp=118–119, 179}}{{sfnp|Rippin|2001|p=288}} an approach that has been criticized by some regarding its compatibility.BOOK, Adams, Charles J., Esposito, John L., Voices of Resurgent Islam,weblink registration, 1983, Oxford University Press, 113–4, Maududi and the Islamic State, [Maududi believed that] when religion is relegated to the personal realm, men inevitably give way to their bestial impulses and perpetrate evil upon one another. In fact it is precisely because they wish to escape the restraints of morality and the divine guidance that men espouse secularism., WEB, Meisami, Sayeh, 2013, 'Abdolkarim Soroush,weblink live, 2021-10-12, Oxford Bibliographies, en,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-11-05, Moreover, secularism is perceived as a foreign ideology imposed by invaders and perpetuated by post-colonial ruling elites,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Secularism, State Neutrality, and Islam, Abdullah Saeed, The Oxford Handbook of Secularism, Phil Zuckerman, John R. Shook,weblink 2017, 188, 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199988457.013.12, 978-0-19-998845-7, 7 August 2023, 3 September 2021,weblink live, {{subscription required}} and is frequently understood to be equivalent to anti-religion.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Nader Hashemi, Secularism, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, John L. Esposito, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009, 978-0-19-530513-5,weblink 7 August 2023, 6 December 2022,weblink live, {{subscription required}}


{{See also|Islam by country|Muslim population growth}}(File:MuslimWorldDemographics2022.png|thumb|Muslim distribution worldwide, based on latest available dataWEB, Data taken from various sources, see description in link, 22 August 2022,weblink Wikimedia Commons, 26 August 2022, 21 December 2022,weblink live, |upright=1.3)(File:Islam percent population in each nation World Map Muslim data by Pew Research.svg|thumb|World percentage of Muslims by country|upright=1.3)As of 2020, about 24% of the global population, or about 1.9 billion people, are Muslims.WEB,weblink Muslim Population by Country 2023,, 14 August 2021, 31 October 2022,weblink live, WEB,weblink The Future of the Global Muslim Population, 27 January 2011, 26 October 2022, 30 September 2023,weblink live, WEB,weblink Muslims and Islam: Key findings in the U.S. and around the world, 9 August 2017, 19 December 2022, 8 November 2022,weblink live, Lipka, Michael, and Conrad Hackett. [2015] 6 April 2017. "Why Muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group {{Webarchive|url= |date=14 May 2019 }}" (data analysis). Fact Tank. Pew Research Center. In 1900, this estimate was 12.3%,David B. Barrett, George T. Kurian, and Todd M. Johnson, World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions in the modern world, Vol. 1: The world by countries: religionists, churches, ministries 2d ed. (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001), 4. in 1990 it was 19.9% and projections suggest the proportion will be 29.7% by 2050. The Pew Research Center estimates that 87–90% of Muslims are Sunni and 10–13% are Shia.{{sfnp|Pew Forum for Religion & Public Life|2009|p=1|ps=. "Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims."}} Approximately 49 countries are Muslim-majority,{{sfnp|Pew Forum for Religion & Public Life|2009|p=11}}BOOK, Ba-Yunus, Ilyas, Muslims in the United States, Kone, Kassim, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, 172,weblink registration, 978-0-313-32825-1, WEB, Muslim Majority Countries 2021,weblink 25 July 2021,, 1 January 2022,weblink live, The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. December 2012. "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010 {{Webarchive|url= |date=23 March 2018 }}." DC: Pew Research Center. Article {{Webarchive|url= |date=26 September 2018 }}.WEB, 7 March 2018, Islam in Russia,weblink 15 June 2021, Al Jazeera English, Al Jazeera, Anadolu Agency, Anadolu News Agency, 28 December 2023,weblink live, {{Citation |title=Book review: Russia's Muslim Heartlands reveals diverse population |date=21 April 2018 |url= |work=The National |access-date=13 January 2019 |archive-date=14 January 2019 |archive-url= |url-status=live }} with 62% of the world's Muslims living in Asia, and 683 million adherents in Indonesia,Pew Forum for Religion and Public Life. April 2015. "10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations, 2010 and 2050 {{Webarchive|url= |date=7 February 2017 }}" (projections table). Pew Research Center. Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh alone.WEB, Secrets of Islam,weblink 24 September 2013, U.S. News & World Report, 22 January 2011,weblink" title="">weblink live, Information provided by the International Population Center, Department of Geography, San Diego State University (2005).{{sfnp|Pew Forum for Religion & Public Life|2009|pp=15, 17}}BOOK, Pechilis, Karen,weblink South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today, Raj, Selva J., 2013, Routledge, 978-0-415-44851-2, 193, 3 May 2019, 28 December 2023,weblink live, Arab Muslims form the largest ethnic group among Muslims in the world,Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times {{Webarchive|url= |date=28 December 2023 }}, Intercultural Press, 2005, {{ISBN|1931930252}}, page xxiii, 14 followed by BengalisBOOK, Richard Eaton, Barbara D. Metcalf, Islam in South Asia in Practice,weblink 8 September 2009, Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-3138-8, 275, Forest Clearing and the Growth of Islam in Bengal, BOOK,weblink The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics, Meghna Guhathakurta, Willem van Schendel, 50, 30 April 2013, Duke University Press, 7 November 2016, 978-0822353188, 7 July 2023,weblink live, and Punjabis.BOOK, Gandhi, Rajmohan, Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten, 2013, 1, Aleph Book Company, New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois, 978-93-83064-41-0, . Most estimates indicate China has approximately 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population).WEB, The World Factbook, Explore All Countries – China,weblink 15 September 2009, Central Intelligence Agency, 13 February 2021,weblink live, WEB, China (includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet), Archived Content,weblink 24 September 2013, U.S. Department of State, 10 July 2019,weblink live, Islam in Europe is the second-largest religion after Christianity in many countries, with growth rates due primarily to immigration and higher birth rates of Muslims in 2005,NEWS, 23 December 2005, Muslims in Europe: Country guide, BBC News,weblink 1 April 2010, 29 September 2009,weblink" title="">weblink live, accounting for 4.9% of all of Europe's population in 2016.{{citation|url=|title=5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe|date=November 29, 2017|work=Pew Research Center|first=Conrad|last=Hackett|access-date=17 January 2023|archive-date=5 January 2019|archive-url=|url-status=live}} Religious conversion has no net impact on the Muslim population growth as "the number of people who become Muslims through conversion seems to be roughly equal to the number of Muslims who leave the faith."REPORT, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Conversion, 27 January 2011, Pew Research Center,weblinkweblink there is no substantial net gain or loss in the number of Muslims through conversion globally; the number of people who become Muslims through conversion seems to be roughly equal to the number of Muslims who leave the faith, 12 May 2020, 24 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink live, Although, Islam is expected to experience a modest gain of 3 million through religious conversion between 2010 and 2050, mostly from Sub Saharan Africa (2.9 million).WEB,weblink Cumulative Change Due to Religious Switching, 2010–2050, p.43, 4 May 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2015, dead, WEB,weblink The Changing Global Religious Landscape, Pew Research Center, 5 April 2017, 17 December 2022, 18 February 2022,weblink live, According to a report by CNN, "Islam has drawn converts from all walks of life, most notably African-Americans".NEWS, Fast-growing Islam winning converts in Western world, CNN,weblink 6 May 2016, 15 October 2018,weblink" title="">weblink live, In Britain, around 6,000 people convert to Islam per year and, according to an article in the British Muslims Monthly Survey, the majority of new Muslim converts in Britain were women.WEB,weblink British Muslims Monthly Survey for June 2000, Vol. VIII, No. 6, Women convert, 2020-09-28, 2008-02-14,weblink" title="">weblink live, According to The Huffington Post, "observers estimate that as many as 20,000 Americans convert to Islam annually", most of them being women and African-Americans.WEB, 2011-08-24, Conversion To Islam One Result Of Post-9/11 Curiosity,weblink 2020-11-26, HuffPost, en, 2021-01-11,weblink live, WEB, Julie, Bindel, Julie Bindel, Why do Western Women Convert?,weblink 8 May 2016, Standpoint (magazine), Standpoint, 26 April 2010, 6 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink live, By both percentage and total numbers, Islam is the world's fastest growing major religious group, and is projected to be the world's largest by the end of the 21st century, surpassing that of Christianity.WEB, Lipka, Michael, Hackett, Conrad, April 6, 2017, Why Muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group,weblink 2022-11-21, Pew Research Center, en-US, 14 May 2019,weblink live, It is estimated that, by 2050, the number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world, "due to the young age and high fertility rate of Muslims relative to other religious groups."Pew Forum for Religion & Public Life. April 2015. "The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010–2050 {{Webarchive|url= |date=11 December 2020 }}." Pew Research Center. p. 70 Article {{Webarchive|url= |date=7 December 2020 }}.

Main branches or denominations

{{See also|Shia–Sunni relations}}


File:Sahih Al-Bukhari in English.png|thumb|right|The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books ]]Sunni Islam or Sunnism is the name for the largest denomination in Islam.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Sunni, Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 September 2021, 30 April 2015,weblink" title="">weblink live, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sunni Islam, John L., Esposito, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014,weblink 10 January 2010, 5 October 2018,weblink" title="">weblink dead, Denny, Frederick. 2010. Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3. "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90%) of that community." The term is a contraction of the phrase "ahl as-sunna wa'l-jamaat", which means "people of the sunna (the traditions of Muhammad) and the community".ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ahl as-Sunnah, Islam Ansiklopedisi, Turkish Diyanet Foundation, Istanbul,weblink Yavuz, Yusuf Şevki, 1994, 10, 525–530, tr, 28 December 2021, 28 December 2021,weblink live, Sunnis, or sometimes Sunnites, believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad and primarily reference six major hadith works for legal matters, while following one of the four traditional schools of jurisprudence: Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki or Shafi'i.WEB, sharia,weblinkweblink 22 January 2020, Lexico, Oxford University Pressurl-status=dead, {{harvp|Esposito|2003|pp=275, 306}}Traditionalist theology is a Sunni school of thought, prominently advocated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855 CE), that is characterized by its adherence to a textualist understanding of the Quran and the sunnah, the belief that the Quran is uncreated and eternal, and opposition to speculative theology, called kalam, in religious and ethical matters.Hadi Enayat Islam and Secularism in Post-Colonial Thought: A Cartography of Asadian Genealogies Springer Publishing, 30 June 2017 {{ISBN|978-3-319-52611-9}} p.48 Mu'tazilism is a Sunni school of thought inspired by Ancient Greek Philosophy. Maturidism, founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (853–944 CE), asserts that scripture is not needed for basic ethics and that good and evil can be understood by reason alone,Rico Isaacs, Alessandro Frigerio Theorizing Central Asian Politics: The State, Ideology and Power Springer Publishing 2018 {{ISBN|978-3-319-97355-5}} p. 108 but people rely on revelation, for matters beyond human's comprehension. Ash'arism, founded by Al-Ashʿarī (c. 874–936), holds that ethics can derive just from divine revelation but accepts reason regarding exegetical matters and combines Muʿtazila approaches with traditionalist ideas.{{sfnp|Esposito|1999|p=280}}Salafism is a revival movement advocating the return to the practices of the earliest generations of Muslims. In the 18th century, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab led a Salafi movement, referred by outsiders as Wahhabism, in modern-day Saudi Arabia.Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 {{ISBN|978-0-7103-1356-0}} page 8 A similar movement called Ahl al-Hadith also de-emphasized the centuries' old Sunni legal tradition, preferring to directly follow the Quran and Hadith. The Nurcu Sunni movement was by Said Nursi (1877–1960);Svante E. Cornell Azerbaijan Since Independence M.E. Sharpe {{ISBN| 9780765630049}} p. 283 it incorporates elements of Sufism and science.Robert W. Hefner Shariʻa Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World Indiana University Press 2011 {{ISBN|978-0-253-22310-4}} p. 170


File:ImamReza(A).jpg|thumb|250x250px|Imam Reza shrine, the world's largest mosque, in Mashhad, IranIranShia Islam, or Shi'ism, is the second-largest Muslim denomination.WEB, Field Listing :: Religions,weblink dead,weblink 6 July 2010, 25 October 2010, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population." ... "Shia Islam represents 10–15% of Muslims worldwide., WEB, Sunni,weblink dead,weblink 14 June 2020, 24 May 2020, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, comprising about 85% of the world's over 1.5 billion Muslims., {{sfnp|Pew Forum for Religion & Public Life|2009|p=1|ps=. "Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims."}} Shias, or Shiites, split with Sunnis over Muhammad's successor as leader, who the Shia believed must be from certain descendants of Muhammad's family known as the Ahl al-Bayt and those leaders, referred to as Imams, have additional spiritual authority.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Shiʿi, Newman, Andrew J., Encyclopedia Britannica, 28 December 2021, 20 July 2019,weblink live, ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2004, Sunni Islam, The Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, Macmillan Publishers, MacMillan Reference, Philip Mattar, 2nd, Tayeb El-Hibri, Maysam J. al Faruqi, File:حرم_الامام_الحسين.jpg|thumb|The Imam Hussein Shrine in modern day Iraq, is a holy site for Shia MuslimsShia MuslimsAccording to both Sunni and Shia Muslims, significant event that took place at Ghadir Khumm, during Muhammad's return from his final pilgrimage to Mecca. At Ghadir Khumm, Muhammad appointed his cousin Ali as the executor of his last will and testament, as well as his Wali (authority).BOOK, Veccia Vaglieri, L., 2012, Encyclopaedia of Islam,weblink G̲h̲adīr K̲h̲umm, Brill, July 14, 2023, 9789004161214, 14 July 2023,weblink live, {{sfnp|Campo|2009|pp=257–258}} Shias recognise that Muhammad nominated Ali as his successor (khalīfa) and Imam (spiritual and political leader) after him.JOURNAL, Foody, Kathleen, September 2015, Interiorizing Islam: Religious Experience and State Oversight in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Jain, Andrea R., Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 83, 3, 599–623, 10.1093/jaarel/lfv029, free, Oxford, Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Religion, 1477-4585, 0002-7189, 24488178, sc76000837, 1479270, For Shiʿi Muslims, Muhammad not only designated Ali as his friend, but appointed him as his successor—as the "lord" or "master" of the new Muslim community. Ali and his descendants would become known as the Imams, divinely guided leaders of the Shiʿi communities, sinless, and granted special insight into the Qurʾanic text. The theology of the Imams that developed over the next several centuries made little distinction between the authority of the Imams to politically lead the Muslim community and their spiritual prowess; quite to the contrary, their right to political leadership was grounded in their special spiritual insight. While in theory, the only just ruler of the Muslim community was the Imam, the Imams were politically marginal after the first generation. In practice, Shiʿi Muslims negotiated varied approaches to both interpretative authority over Islamic texts and governance of the community, both during the lifetimes of the Imams themselves and even more so following the disappearance of the twelfth and final Imam in the ninth century., Some of the first Imams are revered by all Shia groups and Sunnis, such as Ali. The Twelvers, the largest Shia branch, believe in twelve Imams, the last of whom went into occultation to return one day. They recognise that the prophecy of the Twelve Imams has been foretold in the Hadith of the Twelve Successors which is recorded by both Sunni and Shia sources.JOURNAL, Kohlberg, Etan, From Imāmiyya to Ithnā-'ashariyya,weblink Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1976, 39, 3, 521–534, 10.1017/S0041977X00050989, 155070530, July 14, 2023, 14 July 2023,weblink live, Zaidism rejects special powers of Imams and are sometimes considered a 'fifth school' of Sunni Islam rather than a Shia denomination.BOOK, The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social and Military History, Spencer C., Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, 2008, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-85109-842-2, 917,weblink 20 June 2015, 28 December 2023,weblink live, BOOK, The Iraq Effect: The Middle East After the Iraq War, Frederic M., Wehrey, 2010, Rand Corporation, 978-0-8330-4788-5, 91,weblink 20 June 2015, 28 December 2023,weblink live, They differed with other Shias over the status of the fifth imam and are sometimes known as "Fivers".JOURNAL, Peterson, Daniel, Zaydiyya, Islamic Studies, 2011, en, 10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0153, The Isma'ilis split with the Twelvers over who was the seventh Imam and have split into more groups over the status of successive Imams, with the largest group being the Nizaris.BOOK, Newman, Andrew J., Andrew J. Newman, Twelver Shiism: Unity and Diversity in the Life of Islam, 632 to 1722,weblink 2013, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0-7486-7833-4, Introduction,weblink 2, 13 October 2015,weblink 1 May 2016, live,


Ibadi Islam or Ibadism is practised by 1.45 million Muslims around the world (~ 0.08% of all Muslims), most of them in Oman.BOOK, Robert Brenton Betts,weblink The Sunni-Shi'a Divide: Islam's Internal Divisions and Their Global Consequences, 31 July 2013, 978-1-61234-522-2, 14–15, Potomac Books, 7 January 2015, 28 December 2023,weblink live, Ibadism is often associated with and viewed as a moderate variation of the kharijites, though Ibadis themselves object to this classification. The kharijites were groups that rebelled against Caliph Ali for his acceptance of arbitration with someone they viewed as a sinner. Unlike most kharijite groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers. Ibadi hadiths, such as the Jami Sahih collection, use chains of narrators from early Islamic history they consider trustworthy, but most Ibadi hadiths are also found in standard Sunni collections and contemporary Ibadis often approve of the standard Sunni collections.BOOK, Valerie Jon, Hoffman, The Essentials of Ibadi Islam, Syracuse, New York, Syracuse, 3–4, Syracuse University Press, 2012, 9780815650843,weblink (File:Islam branches and schools..png|centre|An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam)

Other denominations

  • The Ahmadiyya Movement was founded in British India in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, who claimed to be the promised Messiah ("Second Coming of Christ"), the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims as well as a "subordinate" prophet to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.BOOK, Upal, M. Afzal, Afzal Upal, Handbook of Islamic Sects and Movements, Brill Publishers, 2021, 978-90-04-43554-4, Cusack, Carole M., Carole M. Cusack, Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion, 21, Leiden and Boston, 637–657, The Cultural Genetics of the Aḥmadiyya Muslim Jamāʿat, 10.1163/9789004435544_034, 1874-6691, Upal, M. Afzal, free, BOOK, Turner, Richard Brent, Islam in the African-American Experience, Indiana University Press, 2003, 9780253216304, 2nd, Bloomington, Indiana and Indianapolis, 109–146, The Ahmadiyya Mission to America: A Multi-Racial Model for American Islam, 2003009791,weblink 1997, There are a wide variety of distinct beliefs and teachings of Ahmadis compared to those of most other Muslims,BOOK, Drover, Lauren, New Religious Movements in Modern Asian History: Socio-Cultural Alternatives, Rowman & Littlefield, 2020, 978-1-7936-3403-0, Kim, David W., Ethnographies of Religion, Lanham, Maryland, 21–36, The Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat: A New Religious Movement Derived from Islam?, 1220880253,weblink BOOK, Korbel, Jonathan, Religious Dynamics under the Impact of Imperialism and Colonialism, Preckel, Claudia, Brill Publishers, 2016, 978-90-04-32511-1, Bentlage, Björn, Numen Book Series, 154, Leiden, 426–442, Ghulām Aḥmad al-QādiyānÄ«: The Messiah of the Christians—Peace upon Him—in India (India, 1908), 10.1163/9789004329003_034, Eggert, Marion, Krämer, Hans-Martin, Reichmuth, Stefan, Stefan Reichmuth (academic),weblink which include the interpretation of the Quranic title Khatam an-NabiyyinBOOK, Balzani, Marzia, Ahmadiyya Islam and the Muslim Diaspora: Living at the End of Days, 978-1-315-19728-9, Abingdon, Oxon, 6–8, 1137739779, and interpretation of the Messiah's Second Coming.WEB, 2016-03-23, What are the Signs of the Second Coming of the Messiah?,weblink 2020-06-23, Review of Religions, en-GB, These perceived deviations from normative Islamic thought have resulted in rejection by most Muslims as hereticsWEB, Paracha, Nadeem F., 2013-11-21, The 1974 ouster of the 'heretics': What really happened?,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2015, 2024-03-19, DAWN.COM, en, and persecution of Ahmadis in various countries, particularly Pakistan,BOOK, Uddin, Asma T., State Responses to Minority Religions, Ashgate Publishing/Routledge, 2014, 978-1-4724-1647-6, Kirkham, David M., Ashgate Inform Series on Minority Religions and Spiritual Movements, Farnham, Farnham, U.K. and Burlington, Vermont, 81–98, A Legal Analysis of Ahmadi Persecution in Pakistan, 2013019344,weblink Google Books, where they have been officially declared as non-Muslims by the Government of Pakistan.WEB, CONSTITUTION (SECOND AMENDMENT) ACT, 1974,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2017, 2024-03-19,, The followers of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam are divided into two groups: the first being the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, currently the dominant group, and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam.
  • Alevism is a syncretic and heterodox local Islamic tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (bāṭenÄ«) teachings of Ali and Haji Bektash Veli.WEB, BEKTĀŠĪYA – Encyclopaedia Iranica,weblink, 13 February 2019, 10 September 2015,weblink" title="">weblink live, Alevism is a blend of traditional 14th century Turkish beliefs,Jorgen S Nielsen Muslim Political Participation in Europe Edinburgh University Press 2013 {{ISBN|978-0-748-67753-5}} page 255 with possible syncretist origins in Shamanism and Animism, alongside Shia and Sufi beliefs. It has been estimated that there are 10 million to over 20 million (~0.5%–1% of all Muslims) Alevis worldwide.John Shindeldecker: Turkish Alevis Today: II Alevi Population Size and Distribution {{Webarchive|url= |date=30 November 2016 }}, PDF-Datei, See also Encyclopaedia of the Orient: Alevi {{Webarchive|url= |date=13 June 2021 }}, consulted on 30 May 2017.
  • Quranism is a religious movement of Islam based on the belief that Islamic law and guidance should only be based on the Quran and not the sunnah or Hadith,JOURNAL, Musa, Aisha Y., 2010, The Qur'anists, Religion Compass, John Wiley & Sons, 4, 1, 12–21, 10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00189.x, with Quranists notably differing in their approach to the five pillars of Islam.JOURNAL, Musa, Aisha Y., The Qur'anists,weblink Religion Compass, 2010, en, 4, 1, 12–21, 10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00189.x, 1749-8171, 8 June 2021, 28 January 2022,weblink live, The movement developed from the 19th century onwards, with thinkers like Syed Ahmad Khan, Abdullah Chakralawi and Ghulam Ahmed Perwez in India questioning the hadith tradition.BOOK, Brown, Daniel W.,weblink Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought, 1999-03-04, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-65394-7, 7–45, 68, en, In Egypt, Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi penned the article "Islam is the Quran alone" in the magazine Al-Manār, arguing for the sole authority of the Quran.BOOK, Juynboll, G. H. A.,weblink The Authenticity of the Tradition Literature: Discussions in Modern Egypt,... G.H.A. Juynboll,..., 1969, Brill Archive, 23–25, en, A prominent late 20th century Quranist was Rashad Khalifa, an Egyptian-American biochemist who claimed to have discovered a numerological code in the Quran, and founded the Quranist organization "United Submitters International".JOURNAL, September 1989, Why the name change?,weblink Submission Perspective, 57, 1, 29 August 2022, 31 July 2021,weblink live,

Non-denominational Muslims

Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.NEWS, Benakis, Theodoros, 13 January 2014, Islamophoobia in Europe!, New Europe, Brussels,weblink dead, 20 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 31 January 2016, Anyone who has travelled to Central Asia knows of the non-denominational Muslims—those who are neither Shiites nor Sounites, but who accept Islam as a religion generally., BOOK, Pollack, Kenneth, {{google books, y, jQGZBAAAQBAJ, 29, |title=Unthinkable: Iran, the Bomb, and American Strategy |date=2014 |isbn=978-1-4767-3393-7 |page=29 |publisher=Simon and Schuster |quote=Although many Iranian hardliners are Shi'a chauvinists, Khomeini's ideology saw the revolution as pan-Islamist, and therefore embracing Sunni, Shi'a, Sufi, and other, more nondenominational Muslims}} Recent surveys report that large proportions of Muslims in some parts of the world self-identify as "just Muslim", although there is little published analysis available regarding the motivations underlying this response.BOOK, Burns, Robert, {{google books, y, akWUGyN7fwEC, 55, |title=Christianity, Islam, and the West |date=2011 |isbn=978-0-7618-5560-6 |page=55 |publisher=University Press of America |quote=40 per cent called themselves "just a Muslim" according to the Council of American-Islamic relations}}BOOK, Tatari, Eren, {{google books, y, x_4QBQAAQBAJ, 111, |title=Muslims in British Local Government: Representing Minority Interests in Hackney, Newham and Tower Hamlets |date=2014 |isbn=978-90-04-27226-2 |page=111 |publisher=BRILL |quote=Nineteen said that they are Sunni Muslims, six said they are just Muslim without specifying a sect, two said they are Ahmadi, and two said their families are Alevi}}BOOK, Lopez, Ralph, {{google books, y, vuNfXxnYWPIC, 65, |title=Truth in the Age of Bushism |date=2008 |isbn=978-1-4348-9615-5 |page=65 | |quote=Many Iraqis take offense at reporters' efforts to identify them as Sunni or Shiite. A 2004 Iraq Centre for Research and Strategic Studies poll found the largest category of Iraqis classified themselves as "just Muslim."}} The Pew Research Center reports that respondents self-identifying as "just Muslim" make up a majority of Muslims in seven countries (and a plurality in three others), with the highest proportion in Kazakhstan at 74%. At least one in five Muslims in at least 22 countries self-identifies in this way.


{{See also|Sufi–Salafi relations}}File:Mevlana Konya.jpg|thumb|The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic RumiRumiFile:Sema ceremony many.jpg|thumb|Sufism in Konya, TurkeyTurkeySufism (Arabic: ), is a mystical-ascetic approach to Islam that seeks to find a direct personal experience of God. Classical Sufi scholars defined tasawwuf as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God", through "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.{{harvp|Esposito|2003|p=302}}{{harvp|Malik|Hinnells|2006|p=3}}{{harvp|Turner|1998|p=145}}{{harvp|Trimingham|1998|p=1}} It is not a sect of Islam, and its adherents belong to the various Muslim denominations. Isma'ilism, whose teachings are rooted in Gnosticism and NeoplatonismAndani, Khalil. "A Survey of Ismaili Studies Part 1: Early Ismailism and Fatimid Ismailism." Religion Compass 10.8 (2016): 191–206. as well as by the Illuminationist and Isfahan schools of Islamic philosophy, has developed mystical interpretations of Islam.Aminrazavi, Mehdi. [2009] 2016. "Mysticism in Arabic and Islamic Philosophy." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by E. N. Zalta. Retrieved 25 May 2020. Hasan al-Basri, the early Sufi ascetic often portrayed as one of the earliest Sufis,Knysh, Alexander. 2015. Islam in Historical Perspective. Routledge. {{ISBN|978-1-317-34712-5}}. p. 214. emphasized fear of failing God's expectations of obedience. In contrast, later prominent Sufis, such as Mansur Al-Hallaj and Jalaluddin Rumi, emphasized religiosity based on love towards God. Such devotion would also have an impact on the arts, with Rumi, still one of the bestselling poets in America.NEWS, Haviland, Charles, 30 September 2007, The roar of Rumi – 800 years on, BBC News,weblink 10 August 2011, WEB, 1 September 2009, Islam: Jalaluddin Rumi,weblink 10 August 2011, BBC, Sufis see tasawwuf as an inseparable part of Islam.{{sfnp|Chittick|2008|pp=3–4, 11}} Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, argued for Sufism as being based upon the tenets of Islam and the teachings of the prophet.BOOK, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein,weblink 17 January 2015, An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines, 1993, 978-0-7914-1515-3, 192, SUNY Press, {{sfnp|Chittick|2008|pp=3–4, 11}} Historian Nile Green argued that Islam in the Medieval period, was more or less Sufism.{{sfnp|Peacock|2019|p=24,77}} Popular devotional practices such as the veneration of Sufi saints have been viewed as innovations from the original religion from followers of the Sunni revivalist movement known as Salafism. Salafists have sometimes physically attacked Sufis, leading to a deterioration in Sufi–Salafi relations.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Cook, David, David Cook (historian), May 2015, Mysticism in Sufi Islam,weblink Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.51, 9780199340378, free,weblink" title="">weblink 28 November 2018, live, 15 January 2023, Sufi congregations form orders (tariqa) centered around a teacher (wali) who traces a spiritual chain back to Muhammad.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink tariqa | Islam,, 4 February 2014, 29 May 2015, Sufis played an important role in the formation of Muslim societies through their missionary and educational activities.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Schimmel, Annemarie,weblink Sufism, Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 September 2021, subscription, Sufism influenced Ahle Sunnat movement or Barelvi movement claims over 200 million followers in South Asia.BOOK, Bowker, John,weblink The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, 2000, 978-0-19-280094-7, 10.1093/acref/9780192800947.001.0001, JOURNAL, Sanyal, Usha, 1998,weblink Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century, Modern Asian Studies, 32, 3, 635–656, 10.1017/S0026749X98003059, {{harvc |year=2003 |c=Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaah |url= |in=Esposito}} – via Oxford Reference. Sufism is prominent in Central Asia,WEB, Alvi, Farhat, The Significant Role of Sufism in Central Asia,weblink JOURNAL, Johns, Anthony H, 1995, Sufism in Southeast Asia: Reflections and Reconsiderations, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 26, 1, 169–183, 10.1017/S0022463400010560, 20071709, 154870820, as well as in African countries like Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, Chad and Niger.WEB, 9 August 2012, Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation,weblink 4 September 2013, The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, JOURNAL, Babou, Cheikh Anta, 2007, Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal, International Journal of African Historical Studies, 40, 1, 184–186,

Law and jurisprudence

{{See also|Logic in Islamic philosophy#Islamic law and theology}}Sharia is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.{{sfnp|Esposito|2002b|pp=17, 111–112, 118}} It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its scholarly interpretations.Vikør, Knut S. 2014. "weblink" title="">Sharīʿah." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics, edited by E. Shahin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 4 June 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2020. The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim traditionalists and reformists.Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: the Quran, sunnah (Hadith and Sira), qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (juridical consensus).BOOK, Esposito, John L., {{google books, y, MOmaDq8HKCgC, 2, |title=Women in Muslim Family Law |last2=DeLong-Bas |first2=Natana J. |publisher=Syracuse University Press |year=2001 |isbn=978-0-8156-2908-5 |pages=2– |author-link=John Esposito |author-link2=Natana J. DeLong-Bas}} Quote: "[...], by the ninth century, the classical theory of law fixed the sources of Islamic law at four: the Quran, the Sunnah of the Prophet, qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (consensus)." Different legal schools developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad.WEB, John Esposito, Esposito, John L., Islamic Law, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 3 February 2017, Oxford Islamic Studies Online, Traditional jurisprudence distinguishes two principal branches of law,ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics. Its rulings assign actions to one of five categories called ahkam: mandatory (fard), recommended (mustahabb), permitted (mubah), abhorred (makruh), and prohibited (haram). Forgiveness is much celebrated in Islam{{sfnp|Leaman|2006|page=[{{google books|plainurl=y|id=isDgI0-0Ip4C|page=214}} 214]}} and, in criminal law, while imposing a penalty on an offender in proportion to their offense is considered permissible; forgiving the offender is better. To go one step further by offering a favor to the offender is regarded as the peak of excellence.{{sfnp|Nigosian|2004|p=[{{google books|plainurl=y|id=my7hnALd_NkC|page=116}} 116]}} Some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God's will.Historically, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists (muftis). Their legal opinions (fatwa) were taken into account by ruler-appointed judges who presided over qāḍī's courts, and by maẓālim courts, which were controlled by the ruler's council and administered criminal law. In the modern era, sharia-based criminal laws were widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models. The Ottoman Empire's 19th century Tanzimat reforms lead to the Mecelle civil code and represented the first attempt to codify sharia. While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws. Legislative bodies which codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence.Mayer, Ann Elizabeth. 2009. "weblink" title="">Law. Modern Legal Reform." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for complete implementation of sharia. The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world. There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.BOOK, An-Na'im, Abdullahi A., Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives, 1996, 978-90-411-0179-2, Witte, John, 337–359, Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights, BRILL, van der Vyver, Johan D., {{Google books, aqyWwF5YA1gC, 337, yes, }}JOURNAL, Hajjar, Lisa, 2004, Religion, State Power, and Domestic Violence in Muslim Societies: A Framework for Comparative Analysis, Law & Social Inquiry, 29, 1, 1–38, 10.1111/j.1747-4469.2004.tb00329.x, 4092696, 145681085,

Schools of jurisprudence

File:Madhhab Map3.png|thumb|right|Islamic schools of law in the Muslim worldMuslim worldA school of jurisprudence is referred to as a madhhab (). The four major Sunni schools are the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali schools while the three major Shia schools are the Ja'fari, Zaidi and Isma'ili schools. Each differs in their methodology, called Usul al-fiqh ("principles of jurisprudence"). The conformity in following of decisions by a religious expert or school is called taqlid. The term ghair muqallid refers to those who do not use taqlid and, by extension, do not have a madhab.Bharathi, K. S. 1998. Encyclopedia of Eminent Thinkers. p. 38. The practice of an individual interpreting law with independent reasoning is called ijtihad.{{sfnp|Weiss|2002|pp=3, 161}}


Religious personages

File:Карло Боссоли. Татарская школа для детей (cropped).jpg|thumb|right|Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)]]Islam has no clergy in the sacerdotal sense, such as priests who mediate between God and people. Imam () is the religious title used to refer to an Islamic leadership position, often in the context of conducting an Islamic worship service.WEB, Imam,weblink 15 January 2023, Encyclopedia Britannica, Religious interpretation is presided over by the 'ulama (Arabic: علماء), a term used describe the body of Muslim scholars who have received training in Islamic studies. A scholar of the hadith is called a muhaddith, a scholar of jurisprudence is called a faqih (), a jurist who is qualified to issue legal opinions or fatwas is called a mufti, and a qadi is an Islamic judge. Honorific titles given to scholars include sheikh, mullah and mawlawi. Some Muslims also venerate saints associated with miracles ().ENCYCLOPEDIA, Radtke, B., Lory, P., Zarcone, Th., DeWeese, D., Gaborieau, M., Denny, F. M., Aubin, F., Hunwick, J. O., Mchugh, N., Walī, 1993, 2012, Bearman, P. J., Peri Bearman, Bianquis, Th., Thierry Bianquis, Bosworth, C. E., Clifford Edmund Bosworth, van Donzel, E. J., Emeri Johannes van Donzel, Heinrichs, W. P., Wolfhart Heinrichs, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd, Leiden, Brill Publishers, 10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_1335, 978-90-04-16121-4,


{{See also|Political aspects of Islam|Islamic economics|Islamic military jurisprudence|Jihad}}In Islamic economic jurisprudence, hoarding of wealth is reviled and thus monopolistic behavior is frowned upon.Iqbal, Zamir, Abbas Mirakhor, Noureddine Krichenne, and Hossein Askari. The Stability of Islamic Finance: Creating a Resilient Financial Environment. p. 75. Attempts to comply with sharia has led to the development of Islamic banking. Islam prohibits riba, usually translated as usury, which refers to any unfair gain in trade and is most commonly used to mean interest.{{harvc |c=Riba |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam Online |year=n.d. |last1= Schacht|first1=Joseph}} Instead, Islamic banks go into partnership with the borrower, and both share from the profits and any losses from the venture. Another feature is the avoidance of uncertainty, which is seen as gamblingNEWS, Foster, John, 1 December 2009, How Islamic finance missed heavenly chance, BBC,weblink 13 February 2022, and Islamic banks traditionally avoid derivative instruments such as futures or options which has historically protected them from market downturns.NEWS, Domat, Chloe, 20 October 2020, What Is Islamic Finance And How Does It Work?, Global Finance magazine,weblink 13 February 2022, The Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphate used to be involved in distribution of charity from the treasury, known as Bayt al-mal, before it became a largely individual pursuit around the year 720. The first Caliph, Abu Bakr, distributed zakat as one of the first examples of a guaranteed minimum income, with each citizen getting 10 to 20 dirhams annually.WEB, Merchant, Brian, 14 November 2013, Guaranteeing a Minimum Income Has Been a Utopian Dream for Centuries,weblink 3 June 2019, Vice Media, VICE, During the reign of the second Caliph Umar, child support was introduced and the old and disabled were entitled to stipends,BOOK, Al-Buraey, Muhammad, {{google books, y, lT8OAAAAQAAJ, |title=Administrative Development: An Islamic Perspective |publisher=KPI |year=1985 |isbn=978-0-7103-0059-1 |pages=252–}}BOOK, Akgündüz, Ahmed, {{google books, y, EnT_zhqEe5cC, 539, |title=Ottoman History: Misperceptions and Truths |last2=Öztürk |first2=Said |publisher=IUR Press |year=2011 |isbn=978-90-90-26108-9 |pages=539– |access-date=7 October 2014}} while the Umayyad Caliph Umar II assigned a servant for each blind person and for every two chronically ill persons.BOOK, Al-Jawzi, Ibn, The Biography and Virtues of Omar Bin Abd al-Aziz – The Ascetic Caliph, IUR Press, 2001, 130, Jihad means "to strive or struggle [in the way of God]" and, in its broadest sense, is "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of (wikt:disapprobation|disapprobation)".{{sfnp|Firestone|1999|pp=17–18}} Shias in particular emphasize the "greater jihad" of striving to attain spiritual self-perfectionENCYCLOPEDIA, Afsaruddin, Asma,weblink Jihad, Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 September 2021, subscription, {{harvp|Brockopp|2003|pp=99–100}}{{harvp|Esposito|2003|p=93}} while the "lesser jihad" is defined as warfare.{{sfnp|Firestone|1999|p=17}}{{harvc|last=Tyan, E. |year=2012 |c=D̲j̲ihād |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.)}}. {{doi|10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0189}} When used without a qualifier, jihad is often understood in its military form.{{sfnp|Firestone|1999|pp=17–18}} Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against illegal works, terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims.{{sfnp|Firestone|1999|p=17}} Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare.Habeck, Mary R. Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror. Yale University Press. pp. 108–109, 118. Jihad only becomes an individual duty for those vested with authority. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization. For most Twelver Shias, offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community, and as such, is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's occultation is 868 CE.{{sfnp|Sachedina|1998|pp=105–106}}{{sfnp|Nasr|2003|p=72}}

Daily and family life

{{See also|Adab (Islam)|Islamic dietary laws|Islam and children|Marriage in Islam|Women in Islam|Polygyny in Islam}}File:Salat Eid al-Fitr, Tehran (113344343).jpg|thumb|Islamic veils represent modesty ]]Many daily practices fall in the category of adab, or etiquette. Specific prohibited foods include pork products, blood and carrion. Health is viewed as a trust from God and intoxicants, such as alcoholic drinks, are prohibited.BOOK, Fahd Salem Bahammam, Food and Dress in Islam: An explanation of matters relating to food and drink and dress in Islam,weblink Modern Guide, 978-1-909322-99-8, 1, All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, except for game that one has hunted or fished for oneself.{{harvp|Curtis|2005|p=164}}{{harvp|Esposito|2002b|p=111}}{{harvc |c=Slaughter |first=Ersilia |last=Francesca |year=n.d. |in=McAuliffe}} Beards are often encouraged among men as something naturalNEWS, De Sondy, Amanullah, 28 January 2016, The relationship between Muslim men and their beards is a tangled one, The Guardian,weblink 7 March 2022, and body modifications, such as permanent tattoos, are usually forbidden as violating the creation.{{efn|Some Muslims in dynastic era China resisted footbinding of girls for the same reason.BOOK,weblink mohammedan., The religions of China: Confucianism and Tâoism described and compared with Christianity, James, Legge, 1880, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 111, 28 June 2010, (Original from Harvard University) }}WEB,weblink Are Muslims Allowed to Get Tattoos?, 7 March 2022, Silk and gold are prohibited for men in Islam to maintain a state of sobriety.BOOK, Glassé, C, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, AltaMira Press, 158, en, 2001, Haya, often translated as "shame" or "modesty", is sometimes described as the innate character of IslamBOOK, Zine, Jasmin, Babana-Hampton, Safoi, Mazid, Nergis, Bullock, Katherine, Chishti, Maliha, American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 19:4, International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), 59,weblink 4 June 2020, en, and informs much of Muslim daily life. For example, clothing in Islam emphasizes a standard of modesty, which has included the hijab for women. Similarly, personal hygiene is encouraged with certain requirements.WEB, Esposito, John, Oxford Islamic Studies Online, Oxford University Press,weblink 3 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2016, (File:Muslim Couple (cropped).jpg|thumb|A Muslim Couple)In Islamic marriage, the groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr).{{harvp|Waines|2003|pp=93–96}}{{harvp|Esposito|2003|p=339}}{{harvp|Esposito|1998|p=79}}Most families in the Islamic world are monogamous.BOOK, Newby, Gordon D.,weblink A concise encyclopedia of Islam, Oneworld Publications, Oneworld, 2002, 978-1-85168-295-9, Oxford, 141, BOOK, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein,weblink Islam : religion, history, and civilization, HarperOne, 2001, 978-0-06-050714-5, New York, 68, Muslim men are allowed to practice polygyny and can have up to four wives simultaneously. Islamic teachings strongly advise that if a man cannot ensure equal financial and emotional support for each of his wives, it is recommended that he marry just one woman. One reason cited for polygyny is that it allows a man to give financial protection to multiple women, who might otherwise not have any support (e.g. widows). However, the first wife can set a condition in the marriage contract that the husband cannot marry another woman during their marriage.BOOK, Ratno Lukito, Legal Pluralism in Indonesia: Bridging the Unbridgeable, 81, Routledge, WEB,weblink IslamWeb, IslamWeb, 7 February 2002, 13 September 2011, There are also cultural variations in weddings.BOOK, Eaton, Gai,weblink Remembering God: Reflections on Islam, The Islamic Texts Society, 2000, 978-0-946621-84-2, Cambridge, 92–93, Polyandry, a practice wherein a woman takes on two or more husbands, is prohibited in Islam.WEB, Why Can't a Woman have 2 Husbands?,weblink 27 December 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 December 2015, 14 Publications, File:عکس های مراسم ترتیل خوانی یا جزء خوانی یا قرائت قرآن در ایام ماه رمضان در حرم فاطمه معصومه در شهر قم 20.jpg|thumb|Shia Muslim girls studying the Quran placed atop folding lecterns (rehal) during Ramadan in Qom, IranIranAfter the birth of a child, the adhan is pronounced in the right ear.{{sfnp|Campo|2009|p=106}} On the seventh day, the aqiqah ceremony is performed, in which an animal is sacrificed and its meat is distributed among the poor.{{sfnp|Nigosian|2004|p=[{{google books|plainurl=y|id=my7hnALd_NkC|page=120}} 120]}} The child's head is shaved, and an amount of money equaling the weight of its hair is donated to the poor.{{sfnp|Nigosian|2004|p=[{{google books|plainurl=y|id=my7hnALd_NkC|page=120}} 120]}} Male circumcision, called khitan,ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2014, Khitān, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,weblink 27 May 2020,weblink 27 January 2020, live, is often practised in the Muslim world.JOURNAL, January 2017, Reported Male Circumcision Practices in a Muslim-Majority Setting, BioMed Research International, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2017, 1–8, 10.1155/2017/4957348, 5282422, 28194416, free, Anwer, Abdul Wahid, Samad, Lubna, Baig-Ansari, Naila, Iftikhar, Sundus, WEB, 13 August 2009, Islam: Circumcision of boys,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 November 2012, 27 May 2020, Religion & ethics—Islam,, Respecting and obeying one's parents, and taking care of them especially in their old age is a religious obligation.{{sfnp|Campo|2009|p=136}}A dying Muslim is encouraged to pronounce the Shahada as their last words.BOOK, 9783643900678, Changing European Death Ways, Austria, 2013, Mathijssen, Brenda, Venhorst, Claudia, Venbrux, Eric, Quartier, Thomas, 265, Lit, Paying respects to the dead and attending funerals in the community are considered among the virtuous acts. In Islamic burial rituals, burial is encouraged as soon as possible, usually within 24 hours. The body is washed, except for martyrs, by members of the same gender and enshrouded in a garment that must not be elaborate called kafan.{{sfnp|Stefon|2010|p=83}} A "funeral prayer" called Salat al-Janazah is performed. Wailing, or loud, mournful outcrying, is discouraged. Coffins are often not preferred and graves are often unmarked, even for kings.NEWS, Rahman, Rema, 25 October 2011, Who, What, Why: What are the burial customs in Islam?, BBC,weblink 28 January 2022,

Arts and culture

{{See also|Islamic art|Islamic architecture|Islamic literature|Islam in association football|Cultural Muslims}}The term "Islamic culture" can be used to mean aspects of culture that pertain to the religion, such as festivals and dress code. It is also controversially used to denote the cultural aspects of traditionally Muslim people.NEWS, Melikian, Souren, Souren Melikian, 4 November 2011, 'Islamic' Culture: A Groundless Myth, The New York Times,weblink subscription, 25 November 2013, Finally, "Islamic civilization" may also refer to the aspects of the synthesized culture of the early Caliphates, including that of non-Muslims,{{sfnp|Esposito|2010|p=56}} sometimes referred to as "(wikt:Islamicate|Islamicate)".BOOK, Wiley, 9781405155144, Islamicate Cosmopolitan Spirit, United Kingdom, 2021, Lawrence, Bruce, xii, Islamic art encompasses the visual arts including fields as varied as architecture, calligraphy, painting, and ceramics, among others.BOOK, Ettinghausen, Richard, Oleg, Grabar, Marilyn, Jenkins-Madina,weblink Islamic Art and Architecture 650-1250, Yale University Press, 2003, 0-300-08869-8, 2nd, 3, BOOK, Suarez, Michael F., The Oxford companion to the book, Oxford University Press, 2010, 9780198606536, Oxford and New York, 331ff, 38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World, 50238944, While the making of images of animate beings has often been frowned upon in connection with laws against idolatry, this rule has been interpreted in different ways by different scholars and in different historical periods. This stricture has been used to explain the prevalence of calligraphy, tessellation, and pattern as key aspects of Islamic artistic culture.BOOK, Salim Ayduz,weblink The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam, Ibrahim Kalin, Caner Dagli, 2014, 263, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-981257-8, Figural representation is virtually unused in Islamic art because of Islam's strong antagonism of idolatry. It was important for Muslim scholars and artists to find a style of art that represented the Islamic ideals of unity (tawhid) and order without figural representation. Geometric patterns perfectly suited this goal., Additionally, the depiction of Muhammad is a contentious issue among Muslims.JOURNAL, 860736, An Indian Picture of Muhammad and His Companions journal = The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs date = June 1919 issue = 195, The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, Vol. 34, No. 195.Islamic architecture, varying cultures show influence such as North African and Spanish Islamic architecture such as the Great Mosque of Kairouan containing marble and Porphyry (geology)>porphyry columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings,ISICHEI >FIRST=ELIZABETH ALLO LGNHYDOZENGCKEYWORDS=MOSQUE%20KAIROUAN%20ROMAN COLUMNSPLAINURL=YES, publisher=Cambridge University Press isbn=978-0-521-45599-2 pages=175 mosques in Indonesia often have multi-tiered roofs from local Javanese styles.GUNAWAN TITLE=INDONESIAN HERITAGE-ARCHITECTURE YEAR=1998 LOCATION=SINGAPORE PAGES=88–89, The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar that begins with the Hijra of 622 CE, a date that was reportedly chosen by Caliph Umar as it was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes.WEB,weblink Islamic calendar,, 8 August 2022, Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, meaning they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr () on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha () on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the end of the Hajj (pilgrimage).BOOK, Oxford University Press, 9780195165203, The Islamic World: Past and Present, 2004, Esposito, John, 75–76, none, Cultural Muslims are religiously non-practicing individuals who still identify with Islam due to family backgrounds, personal experiences, or the social and cultural environment in which they grew up.BOOK, Cara, Aitchison, Cara Aitchison, Peter E., Hopkins, Mei-Po Kwan, Mei-Po Kwan, Geographies of Muslim Identities: Diaspora, Gender and Belonging,weblink 30 June 2013, 2007, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 978-1-4094-8747-0, 147, BOOK, Islamic Counselling: An Introduction to theory and practice, G. Hussein, Rassool, 2015, 9781317441250, 10, Routledge,weblink The label 'Cultural Muslim' is used in the literature to describe those Muslims who are religiously unobservant, secular or irreligious individuals who still identify with the Muslim culture due to family background, personal experiences, or the social and cultural environment in which they grew up... For Cultural Muslim the declaration of faith is superficial and has no effect of their religious practices., File:Sixty Dome Mosque,Bagerhat.jpg|14th century Sixty Dome Mosque, in Khalifatabad, BangladeshFile:Djenne great mud mosque.jpg|Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of MaliFile:Closeup of Mir-i-Arab Madrasa.jpg|Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, UzbekistanFile:1 great mosque xian 2011.JPG|14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in ChinaFile:Masjid Menara Kudus.jpg|16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influenceFile:Basmalah-1wm.svg|The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman regionFile:Roof hafez tomb.jpg|Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran

Influences on other religions

{{See also|Islam and Druze}}Some movements, such as the Druze,BOOK, De McLaurin, Ronald,weblink The Political Role of Minority Groups in the Middle East, Michigan University Press, 1979, 978-0-03-052596-4, 114, Theologically, one would have to conclude that the Druze are not Muslims. They do not accept the five pillars of Islam. In place of these principles, the Druze have instituted the seven precepts noted above..., BOOK, Hunter, Shireen,weblink The Politics of Islamic Revivalism: Diversity and Unity: Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, D.C.), Georgetown University. Center for Strategic and International Studies, University of Michigan Press, 2010, 978-0-253-34549-3, 33, Druze – An offshoot of Shi'ism; its members are not considered Muslims by orthodox Muslims., BOOK, R. Williams, Victoria, Indigenous Peoples: An Encyclopedia of Culture, History, and Threats to Survival [4 volumes], ABC-CLIO, 2020, 978-1-4408-6118-5, 318, As Druze is a nonritualistic religion without requirements to pray, fast, make pilgrimages, or observe days of rest, the Druze are not considered an Islamic people by Sunni Muslims., Berghouata and Ha-Mim, either emerged from Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam, and whether each is a separate religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial.BOOK, D. Grafton, David, Piety, Politics, and Power: Lutherans Encountering Islam in the Middle East, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2009, 978-1-63087-718-7, 14, In addition, there are several quasi-Muslim sects, in that, although they follow many of the beliefs and practices of orthodox Islam, the majority of Sunnis consider them heretical. These would be the Ahmadiyya, Druze, Ibadi, and the Yazidis., The Druze faith further split from Isma'ilism as it developed its own unique doctrines, and finally separated from both Ismāʿīlīsm and Islam altogether; these include the belief that the Imam Al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh was God incarnate.JOURNAL, Poonawala, Ismail K., July–September 1999, Review: The Fatimids and Their Traditions of Learning by Heinz Halm, Journal of the American Oriental Society, American Oriental Society, 119, 3, 542, 10.2307/605981, 0003-0279, 605981, 12032032, 47785421, JOURNAL, Bryer, David R. W., The Origins of the Druze Religion (Fortsetzung), Der Islam, 1975, 52, 2, 239–262, 10.1515/islm.1975.52.2.239, 162363556,weblink 1613-0928, {{harvid, Bryer, 1975b, }} Yazdânism is seen as a blend of local Kurdish beliefs and Islamic Sufi doctrine introduced to Kurdistan by Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir in the 12th century.BOOK, Foltz, Richard, Religions of Iran: From Prehistory to the Present, 7 November 2013, 978-1-78074-307-3, 219, Two Kurdish Sects: The Yezidis and the Yaresan, Oneworld Publications, Bábism stems from Twelver Shia passed through Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad i-Shirazi al-Bab while one of his followers Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri Baha'u'llah founded the Baháʼí Faith.WEB, House of Justice, Universal, One Common Faith,weblink 1 April 2017,, Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak in late 15th century Punjab, primarily incorporates aspects of Hinduism, with some Islamic influences.Elsberg, Constance (2003), Graceful Women. University of Tennessee Press. {{ISBN|978-1-57233-214-0}}. pp. 27–28.


{{see also|Criticism of Muhammad|Criticism of the Quran}}File:John Damascus (arabic icon).gif|right|thumb|upright|John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the BibleBibleCriticism of Islam has existed since its formative stages. Early criticism came from Jewish authors, such as Ibn Kammuna, and Christian authors, many of whom viewed Islam as a Christian heresy or a form of idolatry, often explaining it in apocalyptic terms.{{sfnp|Fahlbusch et al|2001|p=[{{google books|plainurl=y|id=yaecVMhMWaEC|page=759}} 759]}} Christian writers criticized Islam's sensual descriptions of paradise. Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari defended the Quranic description of paradise by asserting that the Bible also implies such ideas, such as drinking wine in the Gospel of Matthew. Catholic theologian Augustine of Hippo's doctrines led to the broad repudiation of bodily pleasure in both life and the afterlife. Christian Lange Paradise and Hell in Islamic Traditions Cambridge University Press, 2015 {{ISBN|978-0-521-50637-3}} pp. 18–20Defamatory images of Muhammad, derived from early 7th century depictions of the Byzantine Church,Reeves, Minou, and P. J. Stewart. 2003. Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making. NYU Press. {{ISBN|978-0-8147-7564-6}}. p. 93–96. appear in the 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri.Stone, G. 2006. Dante's Pluralism and the Islamic Philosophy of Religion. Springer Publishing. {{ISBN|978-1-4039-8309-1}}. p. 53-54. Here, Muhammad is depicted in the eighth circle of hell, along with Ali. Dante does not blame Islam as a whole but accuses Muhammad of schism, by establishing another religion after Christianity.Other criticisms center on the treatment of individuals within modern Muslim-majority countries, including issues related to human rights, particularly in relation to the application of Islamic law.BOOK, Yohanan, Friedmann, 2003, Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition,weblink limited, Cambridge University Press, 18, 35, 978-0-521-02699-4, Furthermore, in the wake of the recent multiculturalism trend, Islam's influence on the ability of Muslim immigrants in the West to assimilate has been criticized.BOOK, Modood, Tariq,weblink Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship: A European Approach, 6 April 2006, Routledge, 978-0-415-35515-5, 1st, 29, registration,

See also




Quran and hadith





  • BOOK, Ahmed, Imad-ad-Dean, Signs in the heavens, 2, Amana Publications, 2006, 1-59008-040-8,
  • BOOK, Arnold, Thomas, The Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith., 1896,
  • BOOK, Bennett, Clinton, Interpreting the Qur'an: a guide for the uninitiated, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010, 978-0-8264-9944-8, 101, Clinton Bennett,
  • BOOK, Blankinship, K., 2008, The early creed, T. Winter, The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology, Cambridge Companions to Religion, 33–54, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 10.1017/CCOL9780521780582.003, 978-0-521-78058-2,
  • BOOK, Brockopp, Jonathan E., Islamic Ethics of Life: abortion, war and euthanasia, University of South Carolina Press, 2003, 978-1-57003-471-8,
  • BOOK, Bulliet, Richard, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Houghton Mifflin, 0-618-42770-8, The Earth and Its Peoples
year = 2005 page =,
  • BOOK, Burge, Stephen, 2015, Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik, London, Routledge, 978-1-136-50473-0,
  • BOOK, Çakmak, Cenap, Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia, 4 volumes, ABC-CLIO, 2017, 978-1-61069-217-5,
  • BOOK, Campo, Juan E., Encyclopedia of Islam, Infobase Publishing, 2009, 978-0-8160-5454-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Chittick, William C, Sufism: A Beginner's Guide, 2008, Simon and Schuster, 978-1-78074-052-2, {{google books, y, LI0kjBlXS5UC, |access-date=17 January 2015}}
  • BOOK, Cohen-Mor, Dalya, A Matter of Fate: The Concept of Fate in the Arab World as Reflected in Modern Arabic Literature, Oxford University Press, 2001, 978-0-19-513398-1,
  • BOOK, Curtis, Patricia A.,weblink A Guide to Food Laws and Regulations, Wiley-Blackwell, Blackwell Publishing Professional, 2005, 978-0-8138-1946-4, registration,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John,weblink Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, 978-0-19-511234-4, 3rd, John Esposito,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press, 1999, 978-0-19-510799-9,weblink 1,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press, 2000, 978-0-19-510799-9,weblink 1,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John,weblink Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam, Oxford University Press, 2002a, 978-0-19-516886-0, 1,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam, Oxford University Press, 2002b, 978-0-19-515713-0, 1,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John,weblink Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 2005, 978-0-19-518266-8, Revised 3rd, 1,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 2010, 978-0-19-539600-3, 4th, 1,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, 2011, What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam, 2nd, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-979413-3, 1, weblink" title="">Lay summary
  • BOOK, Esposito, John,weblink Muslims on the Americanization Path?, Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, Oxford University Press, 2000, 978-0-19-513526-8,
  • BOOK, Farah, Caesar, Islam: Beliefs and Observances, Barron's Educational Series, 1994, 978-0-8120-1853-0, 5th, Caesar E. Farah,
  • BOOK, Farah, Caesar,weblink Islam: Beliefs and Observances, Barron's Educational Series, 2003, 978-0-7641-2226-2, 7th, 1,
  • BOOK, Firestone, Reuven, Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam, Oxford University Press, 1999, 978-0-19-512580-1,
  • BOOK, Goldschmidt, Arthur Jr., A Concise History of the Middle East, Davidson, Lawrence, Westview Press, 2005, 978-0-8133-4275-7, 8th,weblink registration,
  • BOOK, Griffith, Ruth Marie, Ruth Marie Griffith, Women and Religion in the African Diaspora: Knowledge, Power, and Performance, Savage, Barbara Dianne, Barbara D. Savage, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006, 978-0-8018-8370-5,
  • BOOK, Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, Smith, Jane I., Jane Idleman Smith, Muslims in the West: Visible and Invisible, Walnut Creek, CA, Altamira, 2002,
  • BOOK, Hedayetullah, Muhammad, Dynamics of Islam: An Exposition, Trafford Publishing, 2006, 978-1-55369-842-5,
  • BOOK, Holt, P.M., Lewis, Bernard, Cambridge University Press, 1977, 978-0-521-29136-1, The Cambridge History of Islam, 1, Bernard Lewis,
  • BOOK, Holt, P.M., Lambton, Ann K.S., Ann Lambton, Lewis, Bernard, Cambridge University Press, 1977, 978-0-521-29137-8, The Cambridge History of Islam, 2,
  • BOOK, Holt, P.M., Lambton, Ann K.S., Lewis, Bernard, The Cambridge History of Islam, 1A, Cambridge University Press, 2000, 978-0-521-21946-4,weblink registration,
  • BOOK, Hourani, Albert,weblink A History of the Arab Peoples, Belknap Press, 2002, 978-0-674-01017-8, Albert Hourani,
  • BOOK, The Caliphate of Banu Umayyah the first Phase, Ibn Katheer, Taken from Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, Ismāʻīl ibn Ê»Umar Ibn KathÄ«r, 978-603-500-080-2, Yoosuf Al-Hajj Ahmad, Riyadh, Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, 2012,
  • BOOK, Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar, Counseling American Muslims: Understanding the Faith and Helping the People, Greenwood Publishing Group, Praeger Publishers, 2004, 978-0-313-32472-7,
  • BOOK, Kramer, Martin, Shi'Ism, Resistance, and Revolution, Westview Press, 1987, 978-0-8133-0453-3,
  • BOOK, Lapidus, Ira, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 978-0-521-77933-3, 2nd,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, The Jews of Islam, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984, 978-0-7102-0462-2, Bernard Lewis,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, The Arabs in History, Oxford University Press, 1993, 978-0-19-285258-8, 1,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard,weblink The Middle East, Charles Scribner's Sons, Scribner, 1997, 978-0-684-83280-7, 1,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard,weblink Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East, Open Court Publishing Company, 2001, 978-0-8126-9518-2, 2nd, 1, registration,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard,weblink What Went Wrong?: The Clash Between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East, Harper Perennial, 2003, 978-0-06-051605-5, reprint, 1,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard,weblink The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror, Random House, Inc., New York, 2004, 978-0-8129-6785-2, 1,
  • BOOK, Madelung, Wilferd, The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, 1996, 978-0-521-64696-3, Wilferd Madelung,
  • BOOK, Malik, Jamal, Sufism in the West, Hinnells, John R., Routledge, 2006, 978-0-415-27408-1,
  • BOOK, Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism, Yale University Press, 1987, 978-0-300-03531-5,
  • BOOK, Nasr, Seyed Hossein, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, 2003, The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity,
  • BOOK, Nasr, Seyed Muhammad,weblink Our Religions: The Seven World Religions Introduced by Preeminent Scholars from Each Tradition (Chapter 7), HarperCollins, 1994, 978-0-06-067700-8,
  • BOOK, Nigosian, Solomon Alexander, Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices, Indiana University Press, 2004, 978-0-253-21627-4,weblink registration,
  • BOOK, Peacock, A.C.S., Islam, Literature and Society in Mongol Anatolia, 2019, Cambridge University Press, 10.1017/9781108582124, 978-1-108-58212-4, 211657444,
  • BOOK, Peters, F. E.,weblink Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians, Princeton University Press, 2003, 978-0-691-11553-5,
  • REPORT, October 2009, Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population, Pew Research Center,weblink 25 May 2020, {{sfnref, Pew Forum for Religion & Public Life, 2009, }} Overview.
  • BOOK, Rippin, Andrew,weblink Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Routledge, 2001, 978-0-415-21781-1, 2nd, Andrew Rippin,
  • JOURNAL, Serjeant, R.B., 1978, Sunnah Jami'ah, pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrim of Yathrib, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 41, 1–42, Cambridge University Press, 10.1017/S0041977X00057761, 161485671,
  • BOOK, Sachedina, Abdulaziz, The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence, Oxford University Press US, 1998, 978-0-19-511915-2, Abdulaziz Sachedina,
  • BOOK, Smith, Jane I., Jane Idleman Smith, The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection, Oxford University Press, 2006, 978-0-19-515649-2,
  • BOOK, Stefon, Matt, Islamic Beliefs and Practices, Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010, 978-1-61530-060-0, New York,weblink registration,
  • BOOK, Ṭabāṭabāʼī, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn, Shi'ite Islam, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, SUNY Press, 1979, 978-0-87395-272-9, Allameh Tabatabaei,
  • BOOK, Teece, Geoff,weblink Religion in Focus: Islam, Grolier, Franklin Watts Ltd, 2003, 978-0-7496-4796-4,
  • BOOK, Trimingham, John Spencer, The Sufi Orders in Islam, Oxford University Press, 1998, 978-0-19-512058-5,
  • BOOK, Turner, Colin, Islam: the Basics, Routledge, 2006, 978-0-415-34106-6, London,
  • BOOK, Turner, Bryan S., Weber and Islam, Routledge, 1998, 978-0-415-17458-9, London,
  • BOOK, Waines, David, An Introduction to Islam, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 978-0-521-53906-7,
  • BOOK, Watt, W. Montgomery, The Formative Period of Islamic Thought, University Press Edinburgh, 1973, 978-0-85224-245-2, William Montgomery Watt,
  • BOOK, Watt, W. Montgomery,weblink Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, Oxford University Press, 1974, 978-0-19-881078-0, New, 1,
  • BOOK, Weiss, Bernard G., Studies in Islamic Legal Theory, Brill Publishers, Brill Academic publishers, 2002, 978-90-04-12066-2, Boston, Bernard G. Weiss,

Encyclopedias and dictionaries

  • {{harvc |last1=Gardet|first1=L.|last2=Jomier|first2=J.|year=2012|c=Islām |in=Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.)}} {{doi|10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0387}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, {{harvid, Fahlbusch et al, 2001, |editor-last=Fahlbusch |editor-first=Erwin |display-editors=etal |url={{google books|plainurl=y|id=yaecVMhMWaEC}} |title=The Encyclopedia of Christianity |publisher=Brill Publishers |year=2001 |isbn=978-90-04-11695-5 |volume=2}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1913–1936, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Houtsma, M.T., Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, T.W., Arnold, Thomas Walker Arnold, R., Basset, R., Hartmann, 1st, Leiden, Brill Publishers, Brill, 978-90-04-08265-6, {{harvid, Encyclopaedia of Islam (1st ed.), 1913–1936, }}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2012, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Bearman, P.J., 1573-3912, Peri Bearman, Th., Bianquis, C.E., Bosworth, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, E., van Donzel, W.P., Heinrichs, Wolfhart Heinrichs, 2nd, Leiden, Brill Publishers, Brill, 978-90-04-16121-4, {{harvid, Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.), 2012, }}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Brill Academic Publishers, Bearman, P.J., 1573-3912, Peri Bearman, Th., Bianquis, C.E., Bosworth, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, E., van Donzel, W.P., Heinrichs, Wolfhart Heinrichs, {{harvid, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, n.d., |year=n.d. |url= |url-access=subscription}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2004, Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Macmillan Reference Books, Thomson-Gale,weblink Martin, Richard C., 978-0-02-865603-8,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online, Brill Academic Publishers, n.d., Jane Dammen, McAuliffe, Jane Dammen McAuliffe,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, 2, Jane Dammen, McAuliffe, Brill Academic Publishers, 2002,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, 3, Jane Dammen, McAuliffe, Brill Academic Publishers, 2003,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals, Routledge, Salamone, Frank, 1st, 978-0-415-94180-8, Routledge Encyclopedias of Religion and Society, 6,weblink j.ctt1jd94wq, 2004,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2003, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, AltaMira Press,weblink Glassé, Cyril, Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, 978-0-7591-0190-6, registration,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Esposito, John, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, 2003, 978-0-19-512558-0,weblink registration, {{doi|10.1093/acref/9780195125580.001.0001}} – via Oxford Reference.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Esposito, John, 2004, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-975726-8,weblink
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2006, The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, {{google books, y, isDgI0-0Ip4C, |editor-last=Leaman |editor-first=Oliver |isbn=978-0-415-32639-1}}

Further reading

{{Sister project links |wikt=Islam |commons=Category:Islam |b=Subject:Islam |n=Category:Islam |q=Islam |s=Portal:Islam |v=Islam |voy=Islam |species=no |d=Q432 |m=no|mw=no}}
  • Encyclopedia of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Arabic Virtual Translation Center (New York 2019, Barnes & Noble {{ISBN|978-0-359-67265-3}}). The foundation of Islam: from revelation to tawhid.
  • Abdul-Haqq, Abdiyah Akbar (1980). Sharing Your Faith with a Muslim. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers. N.B. Presents the genuine doctrines and concepts of Islam and of the Holy Qur'an, and this religion's affinities with Christianity and its Sacred Scriptures, in order to "dialogue" on the basis of what both faiths really teach. {{ISBN|0-87123-553-6}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2008, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, SAGE Publishing, SAGE; Cato Institute, Thousand Oaks, CA, Ahmad, Imad-ad-Dean, Islam, Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad, Hamowy, Ronald, Ronald Hamowy, 256–258, 10.4135/9781412965811.n155, 978-1-4129-6580-4, 2008009151, 750831024, {{Google books, yxNgXs3TkJYC, yes, }}
  • BOOK, Akyol, Mustafa,weblink Islam Without Extremes, W.W. Norton & Company, 2011, 978-0-393-07086-6, 1st, Mustafa Akyol,
  • BOOK, Arberry, A.J.,weblink The Koran Interpreted: A Translation, Touchstone, 1996, 978-0-684-82507-6, 1st, A. J. Arberry,
  • Cragg, Kenneth (1975). The House of Islam, in The Religious Life of Man Series. Second ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company 1975. xiii, 145 p. {{ISBN|0-8221-0139-4}}.
  • Hourani, Albert (1991). Islam in European Thought. First pbk. ed. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1992, cop. 1991. xi, 199 p. {{ISBN|0-521-42120-9}}; alternative ISBN on back cover, 0-521-42120-0.
  • BOOK, Khan, Muhammad Muhsin, Noble Quran, Al-Hilali Khan, Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1999, 978-9960-740-79-9, 1st, Muhammad Muhsin Khan,
  • Khanbaghi, A, (2006). The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran. I. B. Tauris.
  • Khavari, Farid A. (1990). Oil and Islam: the Ticking Bomb. First ed. Malibu, Calif.: Roundtable Publications. viii, 277 p., ill. with maps and charts. {{ISBN|0-915677-55-5}}.
  • BOOK, The Jewish Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis, Syracuse University Press, 1999, 978-965-224-040-8, Kramer, Martin, Martin Kramer,
  • BOOK, Kuban, Dogan, Muslim Religious Architecture, Brill Academic Publishers, 1974, 978-90-04-03813-4,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard,weblink Islam and the West, Oxford University Press, 1994, 978-0-19-509061-1,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard,weblink Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery, Oxford University Press, 1996, 978-0-19-510283-3, registration,
  • BOOK, Mubarkpuri, Saifur-Rahman, The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Prophet, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2002, 978-1-59144-071-0,
  • BOOK, Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah, History of Islam, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2001, 978-1-59144-034-5,
  • BOOK, Rahman, Fazlur,weblink Islam, University of Chicago Press, 1979, 978-0-226-70281-0, 2nd, Fazlur Rahman Malik,
  • BOOK, Schimmel, Annemarie,weblink Deciphering the Signs of God: A Phenomenological Approach to Islam, State University of New York Press, 1994, 978-0-7914-1982-3, Annemarie Schimmel, 31 January 2019, 22 April 2019,weblink dead,
  • BOOK, Schuon, Frithjof, Understanding Islam, Allen & Unwin, 1963, 978-0941532242, 3rd, Frithjof Schuon,
  • BOOK, Tausch, Arno, What 1.3 Billion Muslims Really Think: An Answer to a Recent Gallup Study, Based on the "World Values Survey". Foreword Mansoor Moaddel, Eastern Michigan University, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2009, 978-1-60692-731-1, 1st,
  • BOOK, Tausch, Arno, The political algebra of global value change. General models and implications for the Muslim world, Almas, Heshmati, Hichem, Karoui, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2015, 978-1-62948-899-8, 1st, Prepublication text available at: WEB, Tausch, Arno, Heshmati, Almas, Karoui, Hichem, January 2014, The political algebra of global value change. General models and implications for the Muslim world, ResearchGate,weblink
  • BOOK, Tausch, Arno, Political Islam and Religiously Motivated Political Extremism, SpringerBriefs in Political Science, Springer Nature, Cham, 2023, 10.1007/978-3-031-24854-2, 978-3-031-24853-5, 256852082, 1st,weblink
  • BOOK, Walker, Benjamin, Foundations of Islam: The Making of a World Faith, Peter Owen Publishers, 1998, 978-0-7206-1038-3, Benjamin Walker (author),
{{Islam topics}}{{Religion topics}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Islam" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 8:01pm EDT - Mon, May 20 2024
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott