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Claude Shannon
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Biography
Childhood
Shannon was born in Petoskey, Michigan and grew up in Gaylord, Michigan.WEB, Claude Shannon,weblink nyu.edu, September 10, 2014, His father, Claude, Sr. (1862â€“1934), a descendant of early settlers of New Jersey, was a self-made businessman, and for a while, a Judge of Probate. Shannon's mother, Mabel Wolf Shannon (1890â€“1945), was a language teacher, and also served as the principal of Gaylord High School.Most of the first 16 years of Shannon's life were spent in Gaylord, where he attended public school, graduating from Gaylord High School in 1932. Shannon showed an inclination towards mechanical and electrical things. His best subjects were science and mathematics. At home he constructed such devices as models of planes, a radio-controlled model boat and a barbed-wire telegraph system to a friend's house a half-mile away."The Lives They Lived: Claude Shannon", New York Times, 30 December 2001 While growing up, he also worked as a messenger for the Western Union company.His childhood hero was Thomas Edison, who he later learned was a distant cousin. Both Shannon and Edison were descendants of John Ogden (1609â€“1682), a colonial leader and an ancestor of many distinguished people.MIT Professor Claude Shannon dies; was founder of digital communications, MIT â€” News office, Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 27, 2001BOOK, Claude Elwood Shannon: Collected Papers, N.J.A, Sloane, Aaron D., Wyner, John Wiley & Sons, Wiley/IEEE Press, 978-0-7803-0434-5, 1993,weblink 9 December 2016, Shannon was apolitical and an atheist.BOOK, Fortune's Formula: The Untold Story of the Scientific Betting System, 2010, Macmillan, 978-0-374-70708-8, 18, William Poundstone, Shannon described himself as an atheist and was outwardly apolitical.,Logic circuits
In 1932, Shannon entered the University of Michigan, where he was introduced to the work of George Boole. He graduated in 1936 with two bachelor's degrees: one in electrical engineering and the other in mathematics.In 1936, Shannon began his graduate studies in electrical engineering at MIT, where he worked on Vannevar Bush's differential analyzer, an early analog computer.WEB,weblink Claude E. Shannon, an oral history, Robert Price, IEEE Global History Network, 1982, IEEE, July 14, 2011, While studying the complicated ad hoc circuits of this analyzer, Shannon designed switching circuits based on Boole's concepts. In 1937, he wrote his master's degree thesis, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits.Claude Shannon, "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits," unpublished MS Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, August 10, 1937. A paper from this thesis was published in 1938. In this work, Shannon proved that his switching circuits could be used to simplify the arrangement of the electromechanical relays that were used then in telephone call routing switches. Next, he expanded this concept, proving that these circuits could solve all problems that Boolean algebra could solve. In the last chapter, he presented diagrams of several circuits, including a 4-bit full adder.Using this property of electrical switches to implement logic is the fundamental concept that underlies all electronic digital computers. Shannon's work became the foundation of digital circuit design, as it became widely known in the electrical engineering community during and after World War II. The theoretical rigor of Shannon's work superseded the ad hoc methods that had prevailed previously. Howard Gardner called Shannon's thesis "possibly the most important, and also the most noted, master's thesis of the century."BOOK, The Mind's New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution, Howard, Gardner, Howard Gardner, Basic Books, 1987, 0-465-04635-5, 144, Shannon received his Ph.D. degree from MIT in 1940. Vannevar Bush had suggested that Shannon should work on his dissertation at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, in order to develop a mathematical formulation for Mendelian genetics. This research resulted in Shannon's PhD thesis, called An Algebra for Theoretical Genetics.C. E. Shannon, "An algebra for theoretical genetics," (Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1940), MIT-THESE1940â€“3 [http:hdl.handle.net/1721.1/11174 Online text at MIT] â€” Contains a biography on pp. 64â€“65.In 1940, Shannon became a National Research Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. In Princeton, Shannon had the opportunity to discuss his ideas with influential scientists and mathematicians such as Hermann Weyl and John von Neumann, and he also had occasional encounters with Albert Einstein and Kurt GÃ¶del. Shannon worked freely across disciplines, and this ability may have contributed to his later development of mathematical information theory.Erico Marui Guizzo, â€œThe Essential Message: Claude Shannon and the Making of Information Theoryâ€ (M.S. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities, Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies, 2003), 14.Wartime research
Shannon then joined Bell Labs to work on fire-control systems and cryptography during World War II, under a contract with section D-2 (Control Systems section) of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC).Shannon is credited with the invention of signal-flow graphs, in 1942. He discovered the topological gain formula while investigating the functional operation of an analog computer.BOOK, NASAP-70 User's and Programmer's manual, Okrent, Howard, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California at Los Angeles, 1970, Los Angeles, California, 3â€“9, Lawrence P., McNamee,weblink 3. 3 Flowgraph Theory, 2016-03-04, For two months early in 1943, Shannon came into contact with the leading British mathematician Alan Turing. Turing had been posted to Washington to share with the U.S. Navy's cryptanalytic service the methods used by the British Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park to break the ciphers used by the Kriegsmarine U-boats in the north Atlantic Ocean.{{Citation | last = Hodges | first = Andrew | author-link = Andrew Hodges | year = 1992 | title = (Alan Turing: The Enigma) | publication-place = London | publisher = Vintage | pages = 243â€“252 | isbn = 978-0-09-911641-7}} He was also interested in the encipherment of speech and to this end spent time at Bell Labs. Shannon and Turing met at teatime in the cafeteria. Turing showed Shannon his 1936 paper that defined what is now known as the "Universal Turing machine";{{Citation | last= Turing | first= A.M. | publication-date = 1937 | year = 1936 | title = On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem | periodical = Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society | series = 2 | volume = 42 | pages = 230â€“65 | doi= 10.1112/plms/s2-42.1.230 }}{{Citation | last = Turing | first = A.M. | publication-date = 1937 | title = On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem: A correction | periodical = Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society | series = 2 | volume = 43 | pages = 544â€“6 | doi = 10.1112/plms/s2-43.6.544 | year = 1938 | issue = 6 }} This impressed Shannon, as many of its ideas complemented his own.In 1945, as the war was coming to an end, the NDRC was issuing a summary of technical reports as a last step prior to its eventual closing down. Inside the volume on fire control, a special essay titled Data Smoothing and Prediction in Fire-Control Systems, coauthored by Shannon, Ralph Beebe Blackman, and Hendrik Wade Bode, formally treated the problem of smoothing the data in fire-control by analogy with "the problem of separating a signal from interfering noise in communications systems."David A. Mindell, Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computing Before Cybernetics, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), 2004, pp. 319-320. {{ISBN|0-8018-8057-2}}. In other words, it modeled the problem in terms of data and signal processing and thus heralded the coming of the Information Age.Shannon's work on cryptography was even more closely related to his later publications on communication theory.David Kahn, The Codebreakers, rev. ed., (New York: Simon and Schuster), 1996, pp. 743â€“751. {{ISBN|0-684-83130-9}}. At the close of the war, he prepared a classified memorandum for Bell Telephone Labs entitled "A Mathematical Theory of Cryptography," dated September 1945. A declassified version of this paper was published in 1949 as "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems" in the Bell System Technical Journal. This paper incorporated many of the concepts and mathematical formulations that also appeared in his A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Shannon said that his wartime insights into communication theory and cryptography developed simultaneously and that "they were so close together you couldnâ€™t separate them".quoted in Kahn, The Codebreakers, p. 744. In a footnote near the beginning of the classified report, Shannon announced his intention to "develop these results â€¦ in a forthcoming memorandum on the transmission of information."quoted in Erico Marui Guizzo, "The Essential Message: Claude Shannon and the Making of Information Theory," {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080528182200weblink |date=May 28, 2008 }} unpublished MS thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003, p. 21.While he was at Bell Labs, Shannon proved that the cryptographic one-time pad is unbreakable in his classified research that was later published in October 1949. He also proved that any unbreakable system must have essentially the same characteristics as the one-time pad: the key must be truly random, as large as the plaintext, never reused in whole or part, and be kept secret.Shannon, Claude (1949). "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems". Bell System Technical Journal 28 (4): 656â€“715.Information theory
In 1948, the promised memorandum appeared as "A Mathematical Theory of Communication," an article in two parts in the July and October issues of the Bell System Technical Journal. This work focuses on the problem of how best to encode the information a sender wants to transmit. In this fundamental work, he used tools in probability theory, developed by Norbert Wiener, which were in their nascent stages of being applied to communication theory at that time. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure of the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing the field of information theory. In 1949 Claude Shannon and Robert Fano devised a systematic way to assign code words based on probabilities of blocks.BOOK, Wolfram, Stephen, A New Kind of Science, Wolfram Media, Inc., 2002, 1069, 1-57955-008-8, This technique, known as Shannon-Fano coding, was first proposed in the 1948 article.The book, co-authored with Warren Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, reprints Shannon's 1948 article and Weaver's popularization of it, which is accessible to the non-specialist. Warren Weaver pointed out that the word "information" in communication theory is not related to what you do say, but to what you could say. That is, information is a measure of one's freedom of choice when one selects a message. Shannon's concepts were also popularized, subject to his own proofreading, in John Robinson Pierce's Symbols, Signals, and Noise.Information theory's fundamental contribution to natural language processing and computational linguistics was further established in 1951, in his article "Prediction and Entropy of Printed English", showing upper and lower bounds of entropy on the statistics of English â€“ giving a statistical foundation to language analysis. In addition, he proved that treating whitespace as the 27th letter of the alphabet actually lowers uncertainty in written language, providing a clear quantifiable link between cultural practice and probabilistic cognition.Another notable paper published in 1949 is "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems", a declassified version of his wartime work on the mathematical theory of cryptography, in which he proved that all theoretically unbreakable ciphers must have the same requirements as the one-time pad. He is also credited with the introduction of sampling theory, which is concerned with representing a continuous-time signal from a (uniform) discrete set of samples. This theory was essential in enabling telecommunications to move from analog to digital transmissions systems in the 1960s and later.He returned to MIT to hold an endowed chair in 1956.Teaching at MIT
In 1956 Shannon joined the MIT faculty to work in the Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE). He continued to serve on the MIT faculty until 1978.Later life
Shannon developed Alzheimer's disease and spent the last few years of his life in a nursing home in Massachusetts oblivious to the marvels of the digital revolution he had helped create. He died in 2001. He was survived by his wife, Mary Elizabeth Moore Shannon, his son, Andrew Moore Shannon, his daughter, Margarita Shannon, his sister, Catherine Shannon Kay, and his two granddaughters.WEB,weblink Shannon, Claude Elwood (1916â€“2001), Eric, Weisstein, World of Scientific Biography, Wolfram Research, WEB,weblink Claude Shannon â€“ computer science theory, www.thocp.net, The History of Computing Project, 9 December 2016, His wife stated in his obituary that, had it not been for Alzheimer's disease, "He would have been bemused" by it all.Hobbies and inventions
File:Minivac 601.jpg|thumb|The Minivac 601Minivac 601Outside of Shannon's academic pursuits, he was interested in juggling, unicycling, and chess. He also invented many devices, including a Roman numeral computer called THROBAC, juggling machines, and a flame-throwing trumpet.WEB,weblink People: Shannon, Claude Elwood, MIT Museum, 9 December 2016, One of his more humorous devices was a box kept on his desk called the "Ultimate Machine", based on an idea by Marvin Minsky. Otherwise featureless, the box possessed a single switch on its side. When the switch was flipped, the lid of the box opened and a mechanical hand reached out, flipped off the switch, then retracted back inside the box. In addition, he built a device that could solve the Rubik's Cube puzzle.Shannon designed the Minivac 601, a digital computer trainer to teach business people about how computers functioned. It was sold by the Scientific Development Corp starting in 1961.He is also considered the co-inventor of the first wearable computer along with Edward O. Thorp.The Invention of the First Wearable Computer Online paper by Edward O. Thorp of Edward O. Thorp & Associates The device was used to improve the odds when playing roulette.Personal life
Shannon married Norma Levor, a wealthy, Jewish, left-wing intellectual in January 1940. The marriage ended in divorce after about a year. Levor later married Ben Barzman.BOOK, Jimmy Soni, Rob Goodman, A Mind At Play: How Claude Shannon Invented the Information Age, Simon and Schuster, 2017, 63, 80, Shannon met his second wife Betty Shannon (nÃ©e Mary Elizabeth Moore) when she was a numerical analyst at Bell Labs. They were married in 1949. Betty assisted Claude in building some of his most famous inventions.NEWS,weblink Betty Shannon, Unsung Mathematical Genius, Scientific American Blog Network, 2017-07-26, en, Claude and Betty Shannon had three children, Robert James Shannon, Andrew Moore Shannon, and Margarita Shannon, and raised his family in Winchester, Massachusetts. Their oldest son, Robert Shannon, died in 1998 at the age of 45.After suffering from a progressive decline over some years due to Alzheimer's disease, Shannon died at the age of 85, on February 24, 2001.NEWS,weblink Claude Shannon, Mathematician, Dies at 84, Johnson, George, 2018-10-04, en,Tributes
To commemorate Shannon's achievements, there were celebrations of his work in 2001.There are currently six statues of Shannon sculpted by Eugene Daub: one at the University of Michigan; one at MIT in the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems; one in Gaylord, Michigan; one at the University of California, San Diego; one at Bell Labs; and another at AT&T Shannon Labs.WEB,weblink Claude Shannon Statue Dedications, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100731230211weblink">weblink July 31, 2010, mdy-all, After the breakup of the Bell System, the part of Bell Labs that remained with AT&T Corporation was named Shannon Labs in his honor.According to Neil Sloane, an AT&T Fellow who co-edited Shannon's large collection of papers in 1993, the perspective introduced by Shannon's communication theory (now called information theory) is the foundation of the digital revolution, and every device containing a microprocessor or microcontroller is a conceptual descendant of Shannon's publication in 1948:C. E. Shannon: A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, pp. 379â€“423 and 623â€“656, July and October 1948 "He's one of the great men of the century. Without him, none of the things we know today would exist. The whole digital revolution started with him."Bell Labs digital guru dead at 84 â€” Pioneer scientist led high-tech revolution (The Star-Ledger, obituary by Kevin Coughlin February 27, 2001) The unit shannon is named after Claude Shannon.A Mind at Play, a biography of Shannon written by Jimmy Soni and Rob Goodman, was published in 2017.WEB,weblink The Elegance of Ones and Zeroes, 21 July 2017, 15 August 2017, Wall Street Journal, George Dyson, On April 30, 2016 Shannon was honored with a Google Doodle to celebrate his life on what would have been his 100th birthday.Claude Shannonâ€™s 100th birthday Google, 2016NEWS, Katie Reilly, Google Doodle Honors Mathematician-Juggler Claude Shannon,weblink Time, April 30, 2016, NEWS, Menchie Mendoza, Google Doodle Celebrates 100th Birthday Of Claude Shannon, Father Of Information Theory,weblink Tech Times, 2 May 2016, NEWS, Google Doodle commemorates 'father of information theory' Claude Shannon on his 100th birthday,weblink Firstpost, May 3, 2016, NEWS, Jonathan Gibbs, Claude Shannon: Three things you'll wish you owned that the mathematician invented, The Independent, 29 April 2016, NEWS, David Z. Morris, Google Celebrates 100th Birthday of Claude Shannon, the Inventor of the Bit,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, April 30, 2016,Other work
File:Shannonmouse.PNG|thumb|Shannon and his electromechanical mouse Theseus (named after Theseus from Greek mythology) which he tried to have solve the maze in one of the first experiments in artificial intelligenceartificial intelligenceShannon's mouse
"Theseus", created in 1950, was a magnetic mouse controlled by an electromechanical relay circuit that enabled it to move around a labyrinth of 25 squares. Its dimensions were the same as those of an average mouse. The maze configuration was flexible and it could be modified arbitrarily by rearranging movable partitions. The mouse was designed to search through the corridors until it found the target. Having travelled through the maze, the mouse could then be placed anywhere it had been before, and because of its prior experience it could go directly to the target. If placed in unfamiliar territory, it was programmed to search until it reached a known location and then it would proceed to the target, adding the new knowledge to its memory and learning new behavior. Shannon's mouse appears to have been the first artificial learning device of its kind.Shannon's estimate for the complexity of chess
In 1949 Shannon completed a paper (published in March 1950) which estimates the game-tree complexity of chess, which is approximately 10120. This number is now often referred to as the "Shannon number", and is still regarded today as an accurate estimate of the game's complexity. The number is often cited as one of the barriers to solving the game of chess using an exhaustive analysis (i.e. brute force analysis).JOURNAL, Claude Shannon, Programming a Computer for Playing Chess, Philosophical Magazine, 41, 314, 1950,weblink Dr. James Grime. "How many chess games are possible? (films by Brady Haran). MSRI, Mathematical Sciences". Numberphile, July 24, 2015.Shannon's computer chess program
On March 9, 1949, Shannon presented a paper called "Programming a Computer for playing Chess." The paper was presented at the National Institute for Radio Engineers Convention in New York. He described how to program a computer to play chess based on position scoring and move selection. He proposed basic strategies for restricting the number of possibilities to be considered in a game of chess. In March 1950 it was published in Philosophical Magazine, and is considered one of the first articles published on the topic of programming a computer for playing chess, and using a computer to solve the gameweblink His process for having the computer decide on which move to make was a minimax procedure, based on an evaluation function of a given chess position. Shannon gave a rough example of an evaluation function in which the value of the black position was subtracted from that of the white position. Material was counted according to the usual chess piece relative value (1 point for a pawn, 3 points for a knight or bishop, 5 points for a rook, and 9 points for a queen).{{Citation | title = Artificial dreams: the quest for non-biological intelligence | author = Hamid Reza Ekbia | year = 2008 | isbn = 978-0-521-87867-8 | page = 46 | publisher = Cambridge University Press }} He considered some positional factors, subtracting Â½ point for each doubled pawn, backward pawn, and isolated pawn. Another positional factor in the evaluation function was mobility, adding 0.1 point for each legal move available. Finally, he considered checkmate to be the capture of the king, and gave the king the artificial value of 200 points. Quoting from the paper:
The coefficients .5 and .1 are merely the writer's rough estimate. Furthermore, there are many other terms that should be included. The formula is given only for illustrative purposes. Checkmate has been artificially included here by giving the king the large value 200 (anything greater than the maximum of all other terms would do).
The evaluation function was clearly for illustrative purposes, as Shannon stated. For example, according to the function, pawns that are doubled as well as isolated would have no value at all, which is clearly unrealistic.Shannon's maxim
Shannon formulated a version of Kerckhoffs' principle as "The enemy knows the system". In this form it is known as "Shannon's maxim".Commemorations
Shannon Centenary
{{Update-section|date=April 2016}}(File:Claude Shannon Centenary Logo.jpg|thumb|Claude Shannon Centenary)The Shannon Centenary, 2016, marked the life and influence of Claude Elwood Shannon on the hundredth anniversary of his birth on April 30, 1916. It was inspired in part by the Alan Turing Year. An ad hoc committee of the IEEE Information Theory Society including Christina Fragouli, RÃ¼diger Urbanke, Michelle Effros, Lav Varshney and Sergio VerdÃº,WEB,weblink Newsletter, IEEE Information Theory Society, IEEE, June 2015, coordinated worldwide events. The initiative was announced in the History Panel at the 2015 IEEE Information Theory Workshop JerusalemWEB,weblink Videos, Technion, Israel, WEB,weblink Sergio VerdÃº, Twitter, and the IEEE Information Theory Society Newsletter.WEB,weblink Newsletter, IEEE Information Theory Society, IEEE, September 2014, A detailed listing of confirmed events was available on the website of the IEEE Information Theory Society.WEB,weblink Shannon Centenary, IEEE Information Theory Society, IEEE, Some of the planned activities included:- Bell Labs hosted the First Shannon Conference on the Future of the Information Age on April 28 â€“ 29, 2016 in Murray Hill, NJ to celebrate Claude Shannon and the continued impact of his legacy on society. The event includes keynote speeches by global luminaries and visionaries of the information age who will explore the impact of information theory on society and our digital future, informal recollections, and leading technical presentations on subsequent related work in other areas such as bioinformatics, economic systems, and social networks. There is also a student competition
- Bell Labs launched a Web exhibit on April 30, 2016, chronicling Shannon's hiring at Bell Labs (under an NDRC contract with US Government), his subsequent work there from 1942 through 1957, and details of Mathematics Department. The exhibit also displayed bios of colleagues and managers during his tenure, as well as original versions of some of the technical memoranda which subsequently became well known in published form.
- The Republic of Macedonia is planning a commemorative stamp. A USPS commemorative stamp is being proposed, with an active petition.WEB,weblink Shannon's centenary US postal stamp,
- A documentary on Claude Shannon and on the impact of information theory, The Bit Player, is being produced by Sergio VerdÃº and Mark Levinson.
- A trans-Atlantic celebration of both George Boole's bicentenary and Claude Shannon's centenary that is being led by University College Cork and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A first event was a workshop in Cork, When Boole Meets Shannon,WEB,weblink -George Boole 200-Conferences, September 21, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906204143weblink">weblink September 6, 2015, yes, mdy-all, and will continue with exhibits at the Boston Museum of Science and at the MIT Museum.WEB,weblink Compute and Communicate â€“ A Boole/Shannon Celebration,
- Many organizations around the world are holding observance events, including the Boston Museum of Science, the Heinz-Nixdorf Museum, the Institute for Advanced Study, Technische UniversitÃ¤t Berlin, University of South Australia (UniSA), Unicamp (Universidade Estadual de Campinas), University of Toronto, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Cairo University, Telecom ParisTech, National Technical University of Athens, Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Nanyang Technological University of Singapore, University of Maryland, University of Illinois at Chicago, Ã‰cole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), University of California Los Angeles, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- A series of geocaches, dedicated to the work of Claude Shannon, will be deployed in Munich, Germany. The first cache has already been placed.WEB,weblink GC6ACQE Shanniversary 1: Information Theory (DE/EN) (Traditional Cache) in Bayern, Germany created by sigurd_fjoelskaldr, Geocaching,
- A logo that appears on this page was crowdsourced on Crowdspring.WEB,weblink crowdSPRING,
- The Math Encounters presentation of May 4, 2016 at the National Museum of Mathematics in New York, titled Saving Face: Information Tricks for Love and Life, focused on Shannon's work in Information Theory. A video recording and other material are available.WEB,weblink Saving Face: Information Tricks for Love and Life (Math Encounters Presentation at the National Museum of Mathematics, ),
Awards and honors list
The Claude E. Shannon Award was established in his honor; he was also its first recipient, in 1972.WEB,weblink Claude Shannon, the Father of the Information Age, Turns 1100100, Roberts, Siobhan, Siobhan Roberts, 30 April 2016, The New Yorker, 30 April 2016, {{Div col}}- Alfred Noble Prize, 1939 (award of civil engineering societies in the US)
- Morris Liebmann Memorial Prize of the Institute of Radio Engineers, 1949WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303211541weblink">weblink 2016-03-03, IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award Recipients, IEEE, February 27, 2011,
- Yale University (Master of Science), 1954
- Stuart Ballantine Medal of the Franklin Institute, 1955
- Research Corporation Award, 1956
- University of Michigan, honorary doctorate, 1961
- Rice University Medal of Honor, 1962
- Princeton University, honorary doctorate, 1962
- Marvin J. Kelly Award, 1962
- University of Edinburgh, honorary doctorate, 1964
- University of Pittsburgh, honorary doctorate, 1964
- Medal of Honor of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1966WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150422004457weblink">weblink 2015-04-22, IEEE Medal of Honor Recipients, IEEE, February 27, 2011,
- National Medal of Science, 1966, presented by President Lyndon B. Johnson
- Golden Plate Award, 1967
- Northwestern University, honorary doctorate, 1970
- Harvey Prize, the Technion of Haifa, Israel, 1972
- Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), foreign member, 1975WEB,weblink C.E. Shannon (1916â€“2001), Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 17 July 2015,
- University of Oxford, honorary doctorate, 1978
- Joseph Jacquard Award, 1978
- Harold Pender Award, 1978
- University of East Anglia, honorary doctorate, 1982
- Carnegie Mellon University, honorary doctorate, 1984
- Audio Engineering Society Gold Medal, 1985
- Kyoto Prize, 1985
- Tufts University, honorary doctorate, 1987
- Universitas Jember, diploma, 1990
- University of Pennsylvania, honorary doctorate, 1991
- Basic Research Award, Eduard Rhein Foundation, Germany, 1991WEB,weblink Award Winners (chronological), Eduard Rhein Foundation, February 20, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110718233021weblink">weblink July 18, 2011, mdy-all,
- National Inventors Hall of Fame inducted, 2004
See also
{{Div col|colwidth=20em|small=yes}}- Channel capacity
- Claude E. Shannon Award
- Confusion and diffusion
- Information entropy
- Information theory
- List of pioneers in computer science
- Noisy channel coding theorem
- Nyquistâ€“Shannon sampling theorem
- One-time pad
- Rate distortion theory
- Shannon index
- Shannon number
- Shannon switching game
- Shannonâ€“Fano coding
- Shannonâ€“Hartley theorem
- Shannon's expansion
- Shannon's source coding theorem
- Signal-flow graph
References
{{Reflist|30em}}Further reading
- Claude E. Shannon: A Mathematical Theory of Communication, Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, pp. 379â€“423, 623â€“656, 1948. weblink
- Claude E. Shannon and Warren Weaver: The Mathematical Theory of Communication. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 1949. {{ISBN|0-252-72548-4}}
- Rethnakaran Pulikkoonattu â€” Eric W. Weisstein: Mathworld biography of Shannon, Claude Elwood (1916â€“2001) weblink
- Claude E. Shannon: Programming a Computer for Playing Chess, Philosophical Magazine, Ser.7, Vol. 41, No. 314, March 1950. (Available online under External links below)
- David Levy: Computer Gamesmanship: Elements of Intelligent Game Design, Simon & Schuster, 1983. {{ISBN|0-671-49532-1}}
- Mindell, David A., "Automation's Finest Hour: Bell Labs and Automatic Control in World War II", IEEE Control Systems, December 1995, pp. 72â€“80.
- David Mindell, JÃ©rÃ´me Segal, Slava Gerovitch, "From Communications Engineering to Communications Science: Cybernetics and Information Theory in the United States, France, and the Soviet Union" in Walker, Mark (Ed.), Science and Ideology: A Comparative History, Routledge, London, 2003, pp. 66â€“95.
- Poundstone, William, Fortune's Formula, Hill & Wang, 2005, {{ISBN|978-0-8090-4599-0}}
- Gleick, James, (The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood|The Information: A History, A Theory, A Flood), Pantheon, 2011, {{ISBN|978-0-375-42372-7}}
- Jimmy Soni and Rob Goodman, A Mind at Play: How Claude Shannon Invented the Information Age, Simon and Schuster, 2017, {{ISBN|978-1476766683}}
- Nahin, Paul J., The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Create the Information Age, Princeton University Press, 2013, {{ISBN|978-0691151007}}
- Everett M. Rogers, Claude Shannon's Cryptography Research During World War II and the Mathematical Theory of Communication, 1994 Proceedings of IEEE International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, pp. 1-5, 1994. weblink
External links
- Guide to the Claude Elwood Shannon papers at the Library of Congress
- {{YouTube|id=D9c67qwttmA|A Public Lecture Celebrating Claude E. Shannon â€“ Sergio Verdu, Institute for Advanced Study}}
- BOOK, Sloane, N.J.A.(ed.), Wyner, Aaron D.(ed.), Claude Elwood Shannon: Collected Papers, 1993, IEEE Press, 0-7803-0434-9,weblink
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