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Armenians
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factoids
6different sources:
  • BOOK, Dennis J.D. Sandole, Peace and Security in the Postmodern World: The OSCE and Conflict Resolution, 24 January 2007, Routledge, 9781134145713, 182, The nearly 3 million Armenians in Armenia (and 3–4 million in the Armenian Diaspora worldwide) "perceive" the nearly 8 million Azerbaijanis in Azerbaijan as "Turks.",
  • BOOK, McGoldrick, Monica, Giordano, Joe, Garcia-Preto, Nydia, Ethnicity and Family Therapy, Third Edition, 18 August 2005, Guilford Press, 9781606237946, 439, 3, The impact of such a horror on a group who presently number approximately 6 million, worldwide, is incalculable.,
  • BOOK, Gevorg Sargsyan, Ani Balabanyan, Denzel Hankinson, From Crisis to Stability in the Armenian Power Sector: Lessons Learned from Armenia's Energy Reform Experience, 1 January 2006, World Bank Publications, 9780821365908, 18, illustrated, The country's estimated 3–6 million Diaspora represent a major source of foreign direct investment in the country.,
  • BOOK, Arthur G. Sharp, The Everything Guide to the Middle East: Understand the people, the politics, and the culture of this conflicted region, 15 September 2011, Adams Media, 9781440529122, 137, Since the newly independent Republic of Armenia was declared in 1991, nearly 4 million of the world's 6 million Armenians have been living on the eastern edge of their Middle Eastern homeland., –8 milliondifferent sources:
  • BOOK, Von Voss, Huberta, Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World, 2007, Berghahn Books, New York, 9781845452575, xxv, ...there are some 8 million Armenians in the world...,
  • BOOK, Freedman, Jeri, The Armenian genocide, 2008, Rosen Publishing Group, New York, 9781404218253, 52, In contrast to its population of 3.2 million, approximately 8 million Armenians live in other countries of the world, including large communities in the America and Russia.,
  • BOOK, Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview: A Global Historical Overview, 2008, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California, 9781851099085, Guntram H. Herb, David H. Kaplan, 1705, A nation of some 8 million people, about 3 million of whom live in the newly independent post-Soviet state, Armenians are constantly battling not to lose their distinct culture, identity and the newly established statehood.,
  • BOOK, Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation, 2010, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland, 9780810854758, Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Struko, 50,
  • BOOK, Philander, S. George, Encyclopedia of global warming and climate change, 2008, SAGE, Los Angeles, 9781412958783, 77, An estimated 60 percent of the total 8 million Armenians worldwide live outside the country...,
  • BOOK, Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation, 2010, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland, 9780810874602, Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Strukov, 51, Worldwide, there are more than 8 million Armenians; 3.2 million reside in the Republic of Armenia.,
Armenia}}{{nbsp|5}}2,961,514weblink հոկտեմբերի 12-21-ը Հայաստանի Հանրապետությունումանցկացված մարդահամարի արդյունքները (The results of the census conducted in October 2011 in the Republic of Armenia). pp 6-7. {{hy icon}}Ministry of Culture of Armenia "The ethnic minorities in Armenia. Brief information". As per the most recent census in 2011. "National minority".Russia}}(Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации)>PUBLISHER=RUSSIAN FEDERAL STATE STATISTICS SERVICELANGUAGE=RU, –2,900,000HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION>YEAR=2010LOCATION=LANHAM, MARYLANDAUTHOR=ROBERT A. SAUNDERS, VLAD STRUKO, 50, United States}}PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, 22 December 2012, –1,500,000 France}}TITLE=ARMENIANS IN HAMBURG: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC EXPLORATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIASPORA AND SUCCESSPUBLISHER=LIT VERLAG MüNSTERISBN=978-3-643-90226-9TITLE=DENIAL: HISTORY BETRAYEDPUBLISHER=MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY PUB.ISBN=978-0-522-85482-4, 4, Georgia}}{{*}}{{flag{{Abkhazia-note}}|group="note"}},weblink Delfi (web portal), Delfi, 29 December 2011, 20 August 2013, ru, (According to the 2011 census).
Artsakh}}{{refnde facto independent and mainly integrated into Armenia, however, it is internationally recognized as de jure part of Azerbaijan.>group="note"}}ACCESSDATE=20 FEBRUARY 2014, Republic of Artsakh, Lebanon}}TITLE=IMMIGRATION AND ASYLUM: FROM 1900 TO THE PRESENTPUBLISHER=ABC-CLIOISBN=978-1-57607-796-2, 13, Iran}}TRANS-TITLE=THE IRANIAN-ARMENIAN COMMUNITYFIRST=TAMARAPUBLISHER=NORAVANK FOUNDATIONLANGUAGE=HY, Germany}}LAST=SARGSYANDATE=8 DECEMBER 2012LANGUAGE=HY, Syria}}{{refnSyrian Civil War, as these are pre-war figures. Many fled to Lebanon, Armenia, and Western world>the West respectively. |group="note"}}PUBLISHER=MINISTRY OF ARMENIAN DIASPORA OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA >DATE= DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=19 FEBRUARY 2014, Ukraine}}url=http://www.ukrcensus.gov.ua/eng/results/nationality_population/nationality_1/s5/?botton=cens_db&box=5.1W&k_t=00&p=20&rz=1_1&rz_b=2_1%20&n_page=2 year=2001 location=Kiev date=December 2017 fix-attempted=yes }}Brazil}}Comunidade armênia prospera no Brasil, mas não abandona luta pela memória do massacre. By Breno Salvador. O Globo, 24 April 2015FEDERAL SENATE OF BRAZIL RECOGNIZES ARMENIAN GENOCIDEAGENCY=ARMENIAN WEEKLY, 3 June 2015, Greece}}LAST=BEDEVYAN,weblinkRadio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Armenian Service>date=18 January 2011language=hy, Argentina}}Ayvazyanp=100}}Turkey}}NEWSPAPER=TODAY'S ZAMANACCESSDATE=5 JANUARY 2013, Canada}}url=http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/dt-td/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=0&PID=105396&PRID=0&PTYPE=105277&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2013&THEME=95&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=year=2011accessdate=20 August 2013}}. Of those, 31,075 reported single and 24,675 mixed Armenian ancestry.Poland}}YEAR=2011 ACCESSDATE=31 OCTOBER 2015 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20151017060215/HTTP://MNIEJSZOSCI.NARODOWE.MAC.GOV.PL/MNE/MNIEJSZOSCI/CHARAKTERYSTYKA-MNIEJS/6480%2CCHARAKTERYSTYKA-MNIEJSZOSCI-NARODOWYCH-I-ETNICZNYCH-W-POLSCE.HTML, 17 October 2015, see Armenian diaspora#Population by country>Armenian population by country for other regionsArmenian language>Armenian| religions = ChristianityArmenian Apostolic Church{{·}}Catholic{{·}}ProtestantArmenian Native FaithHemshin peoples>Hemshin, Cherkesogai| footnotes = }}Armenians (, hayer {{IPA-hy|hɑˈjɛɾ|}}) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.WEB, Armenia: Ancient and premodern Armenia, Encyclopædia Britannica Online,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 17 July 2018, The Armenians, an Indo-European people, first appear in history shortly after the end of the 7th century BCE[, d]riving some of the ancient population to the east of Mount Ararat [...], BOOK, Tiratsʻyan, Gevorg Artashesi, Vardanyan, Ṛuben, From Urartu to Armenia: Florilegium Gevork A. Tiratsʻyan in Memoriam, 2003, Recherches et publications, Neuchâtel / University of Michigan, 51,weblink 29 January 2019, English, In the early 6th century BC, the Urartian state was replaced by the Armenian kingdom in the territory of the Armenian Highlands., Armenians constitute the main population of Armenia and the de facto independent Artsakh. There is a wide-ranging diaspora of around 5 million people of full or partial Armenian ancestry living outside modern Armenia. The largest Armenian populations today exist in Russia, the United States, France, Georgia, Iran, Germany, Ukraine, Lebanon, Brazil and Syria. With the exceptions of Iran and the former Soviet states, the present-day Armenian diaspora was formed mainly as a result of the Armenian Genocide.Richard G. Hovannisian, The Armenian people from ancient to modern times: the fifteenth century to the twentieth century, Volume 2, p. 427, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997.Most Armenians adhere to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a non-Chalcedonian church, which is also the world's oldest national church. Christianity began to spread in Armenia soon after Jesus' death, due to the efforts of two of his apostles, St. Thaddeus and St. Bartholomew.see BOOK, Adrian, Hastings, A World History of Christianity, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 289, 2000, 978-0-8028-4875-8, In the early 4th century, the Kingdom of Armenia became the first state to adopt Christianity as a state religion.WEB,weblink Armenia first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion., 2007-02-27,weblink 11 February 2011, no, Armenian is an Indo-European language.WEB,weblink Armenian (people) | Description, Culture, History, & Facts, It has two mutually intelligible and written forms: Eastern Armenian, today spoken mainly in Armenia, Artsakh, Iran, and the former Soviet republics; and Western Armenian, used in the historical Western Armenia and, after the Armenian Genocide, primarily in the Armenian diasporan communities. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Etymology

File:Mkrtum Hovnatanian. Hayk Nahapet.jpeg|left|thumb|upright=0.7|Hayk, the legendary founder of the Armenian nation. Painting by Mkrtum HovnatanianMkrtum HovnatanianHistorically, the name Armenian has come to internationally designate this group of people. It was first used by neighbouring countries of ancient Armenia. The earliest attestations of the exonym Armenia date around the 6th century BC. In his trilingual Behistun Inscription dated to 517 BC, Darius I the Great of Persia refers to Urashtu (in Babylonian) as (wikt:𐎠𐎼𐎷𐎡𐎴#Old Persian|Armina) (in Old Persian; (wikt:𐎠𐎼𐎷𐎡𐎴#Old Persian|Armina) ((File:Old Persian a.png|30x20pxpx) (File:Old Persian ra.png|30x20pxpx) (File:Old Persian mi.png|30x20pxpx) (File:Old Persian i.png|30x20pxpx) (File:Old Persian na.png|30x20pxpx)) and Harminuya (in Elamite).In Greek, "Armenians" is attested from about the same time, perhaps the earliest reference being a fragment attributed to Hecataeus of Miletus (476 BC)." (The Armenians border on the Chalybes to the south)". BOOK, Chahin, Mark, The Kingdom of Armenia, Routledge, 2001, London, fr. 203, 978-0-7007-1452-0, Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC. He relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians.BOOK, Xenophon, Anabasis, IV.v.2–9, Anabasis (Xenophon), Armenians call themselves (wikt:Õ°Õ¡Õµ|Hay) (, pronounced [ˈhaj]; plural: Õ°Õ¡ÕµÕ¥Ö€, [haˈjɛɾ]). The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk (), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who, according to Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.Razmik Panossian, The Armenians: From Kings And Priests to Merchants And Commissars, Columbia University Press (2006), {{ISBN|978-0-231-13926-7}}, p. 106. It is also further postulatedRafael Ishkhanyan, "Illustrated History of Armenia," Yerevan, 1989Elisabeth Bauer. Armenia: Past and Present (1981), p. 49 that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the ḪayaÅ¡a-Azzi (1600–1200 BC).Movses Khorenatsi, the important early medieval Armenian historian, wrote that the word Armenian originated from the name Armenak or Aram (the descendant of Hayk).

History

{{Indo-European}}

Origin

The Armenian Highland is the area surrounding Mount Ararat, the highest peak of the region.A controversial hypothesis put forward by some scholars, such as T. Gamkrelidze and V. Ivanov, has proposed that the Indo-European homeland was around the Armenian Highland.Thomas Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav V. Ivanov, The Early History of Indo-European Languages, March 1990, p. 110.The modern Armenian language is often grouped with Greek and Ancient Macedonian ("Helleno-Macedonian") in the Pontic Indo-European (also called Helleno-Armenian) subgroup of Indo-European languages by Eric P. Hamp in his 2012 Indo-European family tree, groups .JOURNAL, Hamp, Eric P., The Expansion of the Indo-European Languages: An Indo-Europeanist's Evolving View, Sino-Platonic Papers, August 2013, 239, 8, 10, 13,weblink 8 February 2014, There are two possible explanations, not mutually exclusive, for a common origin of the Armenian and Greek languages.
  • Ancient Greek scholars, such as Herodotus (writing circa 440 BC), suggest that the Phrygians of western Anatolia, who spoke an Indo-European language, had also made a contribution to the ethnogenesis of the Armenians: "the Armenians were equipped like Phrygians, being Phrygian colonists" (7.73) (). This appears to imply that some Phrygians migrated eastward to Armenia following the destruction of Phrygia by a Cimmerian invasion in the late 7th century BC. Greek scholars also believed that the Phrygians had originated in the Balkans, in an area adjoining Macedonia, from where they had emigrated to Anatolia many centuries earlier.
  • In Hamp's view the homeland of the proposed Greco-Armenian subgroup is the northeast coast of the Black Sea and its hinterlands. He assumes that they migrated from there southeast through the Caucasus with the Armenians remaining after Batumi while the pre-Greeks proceeded westwards along the southern coast of the Black Sea.
Some genetics studies explain Armenian diversity by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3,000 and ~2,000 BC. But genetic signals of population mixture cease after ~1,200 BC when Bronze Age civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world suddenly and violently collapsed. Armenians have since remained isolated and genetic structure within the population developed ~500 years ago when Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Safavid Empire in Iran.JOURNAL, 10.1038/ejhg.2015.206, 26486470, 015396, Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations, European Journal of Human Genetics, 24, 6, 931–6, 2015, Haber, Marc, Mezzavilla, Massimo, Xue, Yali, Comas, David, Gasparini, Paolo, Zalloua, Pierre, Tyler-Smith, Chris, 4820045, NEWS,weblink Date of Armenia's Birth, Given in 5th Century, Gains Credence, The New York Times, 2015-03-10, Wade, Nicholas, In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire (at the height of its power), Mitanni (South-Western historical Armenia), and Hayasa-Azzi (1600–1200 BC). Soon after Hayasa-Azzi came Arme-Shupria (1300s–1190 BC), the Nairi (1400–1000 BC) and the Kingdom of Urartu (860–590 BC), who successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland. Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people.Vahan Kurkjian, "History of Armenia", Michigan, 1968, History of Armenia by Vahan Kurkjian; Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, v. 12, Yerevan 1987; Artak Movsisyan, "Sacred Highland: Armenia in the spiritual conception of the Near East", Yerevan, 2000; Martiros Kavoukjian, "The Genesis of Armenian People", Montreal, 1982 Under Ashurbanipal (669–627 BC), the Assyrian empire reached the Caucasus Mountains (modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan).Curtis, John (November 2003). "The Achaemenid Period in Northern Iraq". L'archéologie de l'empire achéménide (Paris, France): 12.Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, was founded in 782 BC by king Argishti I.File:Armenian Empire.png|thumb|upright=1.05|The Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under Tigranes the GreatTigranes the Great

Antiquity

(File:Ptolemy Cosmographia 1467 - Central Europe.jpg|thumb)(File:Fenner, Rest. Persis, Parthia, Armenia. 1835 (A).jpg|thumb|left|200|Persis, Parthia, Armenia. Rest Fenner, published in 1835.)(File:AMBS by Karl von Spruner.jpg|thumb|left|200|Armenia, Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Assyria with Adjacent Regions, Karl von Spruner, published in 1865.)The first geographical entity that was called Armenia by neighboring peoples (such as by Hecataeus of Miletus and on the Achaemenid Behistun Inscription) was established in the late 6th century BC under the Orontid dynasty within the Achaemenid Persian Empire as part of the latters' territories, and which later became a kingdom. At its zenith (95–65 BC), the state extended from the Caucasus all the way to what is now central Turkey, Lebanon, and northern Iran. The imperial reign of Tigranes the Great is thus the span of time during which Armenia itself conquered areas populated by other peoples.The Arsacid Kingdom of Armenia, itself a branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, was the first state to adopt Christianity as its religion (it had formerly been adherent to Armenian paganism, which was influenced by Zoroastrianism,Mary Boyce. Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices Psychology Press, 2001 {{ISBN|978-0415239028}} p 84 while later on adopting a few elements regarding identification of its pantheon with Greco-Roman deities)."The conversion of Armenia to Christianity was probably the most crucial step in its history. It turned Armenia sharply away from its Iranian past and stamped it for centuries with an intrinsic character as clear to the native population as to those outside its borders, who identified Armenia almost at once as the first state to adopt Christianity". (Nina Garsoïan in Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, ed. R.G. Hovannisian, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997, Volume 1, p.81). in the early years of the 4th century, likely AD 301,traditionally dated to 301 following Mikayel Chamchian (1784). 314 is the date favoured by mainstream scholarship, so Nicholas Adontz (1970), p.82, following the research of Ananian, and Seibt The Christianization of Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Albania) (2002). partly in defiance of the Sassanids it seems.Mary Boyce. Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices Psychology Press, 2001 {{ISBN|0415239028}} p 84 In the late Parthian period, Armenia was a predominantly Zoroastrian-adhering land, but by the Christianisation, previously predominant Zoroastrianism and paganism in Armenia gradually declined.Charl Wolhuter, Corene de Wet. International Comparative Perspectives on Religion and Education AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, {{ISBN|1920382372}}. 1 March 2014 p 31 Later on, in order to further strengthen Armenian national identity, Mesrop Mashtots invented the Armenian alphabet, in 405 AD. This event ushered the Golden Age of Armenia, during which many foreign books and manuscripts were translated to Armenian by Mesrop's pupils. Armenia lost its sovereignty again in 428 AD to the rivalling Byzantine and Sassanid Persian empires, until the Muslim conquest of Persia overran also the regions in which Armenians lived.File:Ani-Cathedral, Ruine.jpeg|thumb|left|upright=1.05|The Cathedral of AniCathedral of Ani

Middle Ages

In 885 AD the Armenians reestablished themselves as a sovereign kingdom under the leadership of Ashot I of the Bagratid Dynasty. A considerable portion of the Armenian nobility and peasantry fled the Byzantine occupation of Bagratid Armenia in 1045, and the subsequent invasion of the region by Seljuk Turks in 1064. They settled in large numbers in Cilicia, an Anatolian region where Armenians were already established as a minority since Roman times. In 1080, they founded an independent Armenian Principality then Kingdom of Cilicia, which became the focus of Armenian nationalism. The Armenians developed close social, cultural, military, and religious ties with nearby Crusader States,BOOK, Hodgson, Natasha, Kostick, Conor, The Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories, 2010, Routledge, 978-1136902475,weblink but eventually succumbed to Mamluk invasions. In the next few centuries, Djenghis Khan, Timurids, and the tribal Turkic federations of the Ak Koyunlu and the Kara Koyunlu ruled over the Armenians.

Early modern history

From the early 16th century, both Western Armenia and Eastern Armenia fell under Iranian Safavid rule.Donald Rayfield. Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia Reaktion Books, 2013 {{ISBN|1780230702}} p 165Steven R. Ward. Immortal, Updated Edition: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces Georgetown University Press, 8 January 2014 {{ISBN|1626160325}} p 43 Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian geo-political rivalry that would last in Western Asia, significant parts of the region were frequently fought over between the two rivalling empires. From the mid 16th century with the Peace of Amasya, and decisively from the first half of the 17th century with the Treaty of Zuhab until the first half of the 19th century,BOOK,weblink Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity, 30 December 2014, 9781135798376, Herzig, Edmund, Kurkchiyan, Marina, 2004-11-10, Eastern Armenia was ruled by the successive Iranian Safavid, Afsharid and Qajar empires, while Western Armenia remained under Ottoman rule. In the late 1820s, the parts of historic Armenia under Iranian control centering on Yerevan and Lake Sevan (all of Eastern Armenia) were incorporated into the Russian Empire following Iran's forced ceding of the territories after its loss in the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) and the outcoming Treaty of Turkmenchay.Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728 ABC-CLIO, 2 December 2014 {{ISBN|1598849484}} Western Armenia however, remained in Ottoman hands.

Modern history

File:Morgenthau336.jpg|thumb|About 1.5 million Armenians were killed during the Armenian GenocideArmenian GenocideThe ethnic cleansing of Armenians during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is widely considered a genocide, resulting in an estimated 1.5 million victims. The first wave of persecution was in the years 1894 to 1896, the second one culminating in the events of the Armenian Genocide in 1915 and 1916. With World War I in progress, the Ottoman Empire accused the (Christian) Armenians as liable to ally with Imperial Russia, and used it as a pretext to deal with the entire Armenian population as an enemy within their empire.Governments of the Republic of Turkey since that time have consistently rejected charges of genocide, typically arguing either that those Armenians who died were simply in the way of a war, or that killings of Armenians were justified by their individual or collective support for the enemies of the Ottoman Empire. Passage of legislation in various foreign countries, condemning the persecution of the Armenians as genocide, has often provoked diplomatic conflict. (See Recognition of the Armenian Genocide)Following the breakup of the Russian Empire in the aftermath of World War I for a brief period, from 1918 to 1920, Armenia was an independent republic. In late 1920, the communists came to power following an invasion of Armenia by the Red Army; in 1922, Armenia became part of the Transcaucasian SFSR of the Soviet Union, later on forming the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (1936 to 21 September 1991). In 1991, Armenia declared independence from the USSR and established the second Republic of Armenia.

Geographic distribution

File:Armenian distribution map.png|thumb|upright=1.35|Armenian presence in the early 20th century:{{legend inline|#967117|>50%}}{{nbsp|5}}{{legend inline|#FFA700|25–50%}}{{nbsp|5}}{{legend inline|#FBEC5D|

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